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62 terms

Chapter 7 and 8

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consciousness
a state of awareness, including a person's feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions
REM sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming
circadian rhythm
the rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day
insomnia
the failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep
narcolepsy
a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep of feeling very sleepy throughout the day
nightmares
unpleasant dreams
night terrors
sleep disruptions that occur during stage IV sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion
sleepwalking
walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep
hypnosis
a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion made during hypnosis that influences the participants behavior afterward
biofeedback
the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of specialized machines
meditation
the focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation
psychoactive drugs
chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness
marijuana
the dried leaves and the flowers of indian help (cannabis sativa) that produce an altered state of conciousness when smoked or ingested
hallucinations
perceptions that have no direct external cause
hallucinogens
drugs that often produce hallucinations
LSD
lysergiv acid diethylamide, a potent psychadelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought
sensation
what occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor
stimulus
any aspect of or change in the environment to which an organism responds
perception
the organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
psychophysics
the study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that produces them
absolute threshold
the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
difference threshold
the smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
Weber's law
the principle that the larger or stronger a stimulus, the larger the change required for an observer to notive a difference
signal detection theory
the study of people's tendencies to make correct judgements in detecting the presence of stimuli
attentive process
a procedure that considers only one part of the stimuli presented at one time
preattentive process
a method for extracting information automativally ans simultaneously when presented with stimuli
pupil
the opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
lens
a flexible, transparent structure in the eye that changes its shape to focus light on the retina
retina
the innermost coating of the back of the eye, containing the light-sensitive receptor cells
optic nerve
the nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain
binocular fusion
the process of combining the images recieved from the two eyes into a single, fused image.
retinal disparity
the differences between the images stimulating each eye
auditory nerve
the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain resulting in the sensation of sound
olfactory nerve
the nerve that carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain
vesitbular system
three semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve
kinesthesis
the sense of movement and body position
gestalt
the experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
perceptual inference
filling in the gaps in what our senses tell us
subliminal messages
brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
subliminal perception
the ability to notice stimuli that affect only the unconscious mind
monecular depth cues
cues that can be used with a single eye
relative height
objects that appear farther away from another object are higher on your plane of view
interposition
overlapping of images causes us to view the object we can see in its entirety to be closer than one whose outline is interrupted by another object.
texture density gradient
the farther removed an object is, the less detail we can identify
motion parallax
the apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
consistancy
the tendency to percieve certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
illusions
perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli
extrasensory perception (ESP)
an ability to gain information by some means other than the ordinary senses.
stage 1 sleep
pulse slows, muscles relzx, breathing becoms uneven, bnrain waves are irregular. "just drifting".
stage 2 sleep
eyes roll slowly from side to side, low frequency, high amplitude waves
stage 3 sleep
large amplitude delta waves sweep the brain every second
stage 4 sleep
deepest sleep, difficult to waken a sleeper. large regular delta waves occuring more than 50 percent of the time.
linear perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
synesthesia
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another ("a loud color", "a sweet sound")
pitch
A measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave
conduction deafness
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
sensorineural deafness
hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear
gate control theory
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
nearsighted
eyeball is too long, so objects are focused at a point slightly in front of the retina. you can see objects that are near but distant objects seem blurry.
farsighted
eyeball is too short, so objects are focused at a poitn slightly behind the retina so that you can see distant objects clearly but near objects appear blurry.