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7th Grade Civics EOC Study Guide
This is a study guide for the 7th Grade Civics EOC exam coming up on May 17th! It will help you be successful when you take the exam.
Terms in this set (188)
The Enlightenment idea of the separation of powers was developed by
Baron de Montesquieu
John Locke's theory that certain truths in society come from and are governed by nature is known as the theory of
Natural Law TB p. 44
Describe John Locke's theory of social contract.
People give up some of their rights to government in order to have better lives. They will be protected.
This document guaranteed that not even the king or queen was above the law. Established a limited monarchy.
Magna Carta TB p.45
Explain the significance of the English Bill of Rights on the development of the U.S. Constitution.
Established thought that individual rights should be listed and protected
What was the first document that established self-government by creating a direct democracy in the colonies?
TB p. 45
This pamphlet, written by Thomas Paine, was used to justify the ideals and reasons for independence from Great Britain.
TB p. 34
Give specific examples of how the American colonists responded to Great Britain's policies.
Boston Tea Party, boycott, protest, literature
What concerns of the colonists led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
Taxation without representation, forced quartering, trial without jury.
What were the main complaints/arguments against Britain in the Declaration of Independence?
Colonists felt that England was not protecting their rights, taxing without representation.
John Locke's theory of ___________ guaranteed that all individuals are entitled to basic rights such as life, liberty, and property.
Which document outlined the first form of government for the United States? Which system of government did this document create?
Articles of Confederation, a confederal system (no central government)
List some of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Central government was too weak, document was inflexible and could not be changed, no national currency, could not enforce laws, no executive branch, no court system.
What is the purpose of the Preamble to the constitution?
It explains why the Constitution was written. It outlines the goals. TB p. 88-89.
What was the main argument the Federalists used to support the ratification of the Constitution?
The need for a stronger government
TB p. 47
List the arguments the Anti-Federalists used to against ratifying the Constitution.
No bill of rights, central government too strong, did not want to lose state's rights.
A legal member of a country is a
Name two ways a person can become a U.S. citizen
Birth (Natural Birth) or naturalization
List the steps in the naturalization process.
Sign declaration of intent, apply for residency visa, apply for citizenship, get finger printed, interview with a USCIS, pass citizenship test, oath of allegiance.
What are the major differences between Democrats and Republicans?
Government support of U.S. welfare
What is a plank?
individual part of a party's platform
What is a platform?
a statement of a political party's views on important issues and policies
Give an example of media informing the public about government.
A newspaper reports the details about a bill.
Give an example of how an individual can influence local government.
Write a letter expressing a concern to a county commissioner.
Give an example on how interest groups can influence government.
An interest group can endorse a candidate for election.
What is bias?
Showing preference towards a particular viewpoint.
What is symbolism?
The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
What is propaganda?
The spread of ideas used to influence people.
What is the difference between direct democracy and representative democracy?
Direct: Voting "Directly" for leaders/laws
Representative: Electing leaders to vote for you
Explain the major similarity between socialism and communism.
Both socialism and communism are based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a certified organization
A type of government in which the leadership is made up of the few wealthy elite is called a
What is monarchy?
A type of government in which the head of state is a king or queen
What is autocracy?
A system of government with absolute power
What is the Federal System of government?
Federal: Powers of government are divided between National and State Governments.
What is a confederal system of government?
Powers of government are concentrated at the state level. A loose union of states.
What is a unitary system of government?
Unitary: A central body retains supreme power.
What is the term for a system of government in which the power to make and execute laws is held by a parliament?
What term means that all citizens are accountable to the law?
Rule of Law
Why is rule of law fundamental to the American legal system?
American democracy is based on the idea of equality.
Why is it an obligation or a duty for citizens to follow laws?
Compliance maintains social order
Why do citizens pay taxes? How does this benefit society?
It is an obligation or duty and they help pay for public services.
Why is it important to have citizens serve on juries?
It is an obligation or duty and it ensures fair trials and justice.
What are the five rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment?
religion, speech, assembly, petition, press
Why was it important to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
It satisfied the Anti-Federalists, limited the government and protected individuals rights.
List the rights guaranteed by the 5th amendment (4D's)
D: Due Process D: Double Jeopardy D: Eminent Domain D: Don't have to testify
How do the fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments protect the rights of the accused?
Search and Seizure, 4D's, speedy trial, impartial jury, right to attorney, no excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishment
Why do you think the Framers included the 2nd amendment with respect to militias?
Individuals rights to protect themselves; right to bear arms
Why did the Framers include the 3rd amendment in the Bill of Rights?
Reactions to the Quartering act; soldiers can not enter homes without permission.
Explain the difference between the 6th and 7th amendments
Sixth protects the rights of the accused (right to an attorney), and seventh ensures fairness in civil cases (people)
How does the Ninth Amendment safeguard individual liberties?
Individual rights are not limited to only those listed. The founding fathers knew they could not list all rights in the Constitution.l
The division of powers between three branches of government is called
Separation of Powers
The ability of one branch of government to limit powers of the others is called
Checks and Balances
What is the purpose of checks and balances and separation of powers in the constitution?
To prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful
What is the "highest law of land" in the U.S.?
______________ law refers to the body of law that governs relationships between individuals and settle disputes.
______________ law refers to the body of law that regulates the conduct of individuals.
______________ law is based on the Constitution and Supreme Court descisions.
______________ law governs the behavior of men and women in all branches of the armed forces.
Which amendment abolished slavery in the U.S.?
Which amendment guaranteed due process, equal protection, under the law and granted rights of citizenship to African Americans?
Which amendment guaranteed the right of suffrage (to vote) regardless of previous condition of servitude (slavery)?
Which amendment, ratified in 1920, guaranteed women's suffrage?
Which amendment outlawed the use of poll taxes (pay to vote) as a requirement for voting?
In the wake of the Vietnam War, which amendment was added to lower the voting age of U.S. citizens to 18?
What Landmark Supreme Court case resulted in the principle of Judicial Review? Supreme Court could interpret laws.
Marbury v. Madison 1803
What Landmark Supreme Court case justified segregation and the principle of "separate but equal"?
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
What Landmark Supreme Court case overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision by ruling the separate facilities were not equal and ended segregation in schools?
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
What Landmark Supreme Court case required states to provide free legal help (an attorney) to those who could not afford representation in court?
Gideon v. Wainwright 1963
What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that an individual's rights begin at the time of their arrest and required that individuals be notified of these rights? Read the Miranda Warning.
Miranda v. Arizona 1966
What Landmark Supreme Court case rules that juveniles accused of crimes receive the same due process as adults?
In Re: Gault 1967
What Landmark Supreme Court case expanded interpretation of the First Amendment right to free speech in schools to also include freedom of expression?
Tinker v. Des Moines
What Landmark Supreme Court case limited freedom of press in school publications?
Hazelwood v. Kuhlm
The Supreme Court ruled in the Supreme Court case ___________ that "executive privilege" is only extended when connected to national security. The President is not above the law.
United States v. Nixon 1974
What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that the Supreme Court could overrule a state court's decisions on state laws (in regards to Election 2000) Issue with voting machines in Florida. Candidate did not win by popular vote.
Bush v. Gore
When evaluating candidates for office, what are examples of things that might influence your decision?
Qualifications, experience, abilities, education, platform
All policies dealing with issues within the United States are considered ____________ policy.
__________________ is the government's plan for interacting with other countries of the world.
The policy of _________ the income of U.S. citizens to fund government programs for the good of society is an example of domestic policy.
Providing monetary aid, military assistance or food to nations in need in order to promote peace is an example of __________ policy.
This is an international organization that promotes peaceful coexistence and global cooperation. p. 598
UN; United Nations
This "security alliance" between the United States and many european countries was originally formed to establish a united front against Soviet aggression during the Cold War and now engages in joint security and peacekeeping operations.
NATO; North Atlantic Treaty Organization
This volunteer program provides technical assistance and cultural understanding between the United States and other nations.
This UN agency promotes worldwide health to combat the spread of diseases.
WHO; World Health Organization
Which UN agency promotes international trade among nations?
WTO; World Trade Organization
What court is known as the "World Court"?
International Court of Justice
This term describes a way in which the US can enter into an agreement with other nations to resolve conflicts or further relationships.
Treaty; President creates; Senate approves
The United States has used this mechanism to punish nations that violate human rights or otherwise threaten the interests of the United States.
Trade Sanctions; stops trade with other countries
In a federal system, _______________ powers are shared between the states and the national government.
The ability to protect borders is best performed by which level of government?
The service of maintaining public libraries is best performed by which level of government?
What are the main sections of the Florida and U.S. Constitutions called?
Preamble, Amendments, and Articles that establish three-branches of government
In this form of government, all citizens in the community vote on all decisions.
Voting for representatives to carry out the work of government and make decisions is defined as what form of government?
____________ is a system of government that believes that society should organize and control the means of production for the welfare of all.
_____________ is a system of government that believes that the state should own the land, capital, labor and make all economic decisions.
In this form of government, a king or queen reigns over a kingdom or empire.
A form of government in which only a few people rule.
A dictatorship is an example of this type of government in which one person holds all the power.
The _________ type of of democratic government that exists in Great Britain is led by a majority of its legislature who then chooses its executive that is called a ___________.
Parliamentry; Prime Minister
In what type of government is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme?
A ______________ is a loose association of states.
A system of government where powers are shared and divided between the national and state government.
What are the basic steps on how a bill becomes a law?
A bill is introduced in one house of congress; then it goes to the other; then sent to committee; then sent to the President to sign or veto.
Who has the power to declare war?
A _____________ legislature is a lawmaking body with two houses.
What are the two houses of U.S. Congress?
House of Representatives and Senate
What are the qualifications for members of the House of Representatives?
25 years old, citizen of U.S. for at least 7 years, local resident for state they represent.
What are the qualifications for members of the Senate?
30 years old, U.S. citizen for 9 years, local resident for state they represent.
What is the term limit for the President of the U.S.?
Two terms or 8 years.
What are the duties of the vice president?
Serve as president if something happens to the president and preside over senate, break the tie in the senate if needed.
Who is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces?
President of U.S.
What makes up the Executive Office of the President?
Agencies and offices that advise the president
What is an example of a public issue?
What are the two ways a US Constitutional amendment can be proposed?
By Congress (2/3 vote)
National Convention (2/3rds)
What did many American colonists use Thomas Paine's Common Sense to justify?
Declaring independence from Britain
What was one cause that led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
British ignored the colonist grieveances
The Declaration of Independence included many complaints. What are some examples?
taxation without representation, limiting judicial powers, quartering troops, dissolving legislature, suspending trial by jury.
What was one weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
The government did not have a separate judicial branch (court system).
Under the Articles of Confederation, which branch did it create to address the problem that Congress could not make the states follow laws?
Executive Branch. It had no President.
Insure Domestic Tranquility
Keep the peace at home.
The government of the U.S. depends on its people for it's power and exists to
serve the people.
What is one of the viewpoints of the Anti-Federalists?
The Constitution did not give enough power to the states. They opposed the Constitution.
The rule of law holds government officials and institutions
accountable to the law.
What is a democracy?
It is run by the people, either directly or indirectly.
A term used in the 14th Amendment to describe persons who are born or naturalized in the U.S.
The common good will suffer if they do not
attend public meetings, help neighbors after a storm, follow rules at landmarks, volunteer in the community.
People must file a tax document to show their yearly earnings to
help provide social programs for needy citizens.
These rights are guaranteed by the Bill of Rights
freedom to publish opinions in the the newspapers, own a gun when laws are followed, join a church of their choice.
Under the U.S. Constitution, the government can seize your property as long as they offer a fair market price for your home.
printed lies; rumors that damage a persons reputation.
verbal lies; a malicious, false, and defamatory statement or report
Freedom of the Press has allowed the government
to be more responsive to the needs of the people.
Freedom of Speech has allowed society
to be more informed.
people 18 years old can vote.
Voting Rights Act 1965
enforced the 15th amendment that protected the right of racial minorities to vote.
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
all states must desegregate schools.
Miranda v. Arizona 1966
right to remain silent, no self incrimination; you do not have to speak to law enforcement.
liberal; favor tax increases to support new social programs.
conservative; favor state and local government to support social programs.
An online petition and writing letters to citizens
might be the least costly and quickest way to lobby for support of an upcoming bill in Congress.
An example of changing a foreign policy would be
Congress lifting the oil embargo on (not allowing oil to be sent to) a formerly communist government.
Citizen participation in an international organization might involve
someone volunteering to help raise funds for the UNICEF.
have the power to send troops to another country, but must justify actions to Congress.
A government with unlimited power is?
The people choose a person through voting to represent them.
The central government has the most power.
Presidents negotiate foreign treaties and
the Senate approves (ratifies) them.
Presidents appoint their cabinet members
the Senate approves.
can only regulate trade with other countries and between states.
It is important to be able to amend or change the Constitution because
it allows for the Constitution to be adjusted in the future if needed.
The executive branch
proposes and vetoes laws, grants federal pardons, negotiates treaties, and appoints federal judges.
In the state court system the path for a case would be
state level court, state appeals court, Florida Supreme Court, and the U.S. Supreme Court.
The U.S. Constitution has 2 methods for proposing an amendment, but Florida's Constitution has how many?
The local government provides
right to vote
What are two ways an amendment to the Constitution can be proposed (asked)?
Congress 2/3 vote, National Convention 2/3 of the state legislatures vote
congressional powers to do any actions relating to delegated powers that are considered "necessary an proper"
the power of the courts to review the acts of other branches of government and decide if they have acted correctly and according to the Constitution.
government by the consent of the governed
the powers that the Constitution specifically gives to the federal government
the powers that are set aside for, reserved for the states, because they are not specifically given to the federal government.
supported the Constitution; favored a strong national government.
to establish or order by appointment, decree, or law :enact <we the people ... do ordain and establish this Constitution — United States Constitution>
... unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
... clearly true and requiring no proof or explanation
... a government in which all power belongs to one person : the rule or authority of a tyrant
... The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met between May and September of 1787 to address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation. The United States Constitution that came from that convention established a federal government with shared state powers.
... Shays' Rebellion is the name given to a series of protests in 1786 and 1787 by American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt from the British.
...something owed such as money or taxes.
...A series of articles written by James Madison, Alex Hamilton and John Jay. They were leading Federalists. The articles were published to help increase support for the Constitution.
...people who live in a nation but are not citizens of that nation.
...people who come to a country to settle as permanent residents.
...a federal agency that requires all men between the age of 18 and 26 be registered in case of a future draft or requiring citizens to serve in the military.
...an earlier court decision that guides judges decisions in later cases. TB p. 182
...an interest group; tries to influence government policies. TB p. 278
...a person who is paid by a lobby or interest group to represent that group's interests.
... a tax that each adult has to pay in order to vote in an election. This ended with the 24th amendment.
...a form of government in which the people elect representatives to carry on the work of government for them.
...King or Queen has all the power; rules alone.
...the chief executive of a state goverment.
... the chief executive of a parliamentary government such as England.
..."necessary and proper" clause in the Constitution that allows Congress to extend its delegated powers.
...powers listed in the Constitution.
... to charge (a public official) with a crime done while in office.
... government is created by and subject to the will of the people
... a meeting of members of a political party for the purpose of choosing candidates for an election
An official count of the number of people in a country. Used to determine the number of Representatives in Congress for each state.
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