Terms in this set (75)
A united kingdom of the German Saxons and Angles (both of which had invaded England in the early 5th century); had been united under King Alfred the Great in the late 9th century; invaded by King William of Normandy in 1066, defeating King Harold (Battle of Hastings); intermarriage between the French Normans and Anglo Saxon nobles soon began.
Alfred the Great
(849-899) King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo- Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning.
A member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066
Norwegian claimant to English throne. Dies at the Battle of Hastings in which William conquerors them and takes over as ruler. Northern conquest of England pulls them into European interests.
A member of the most powerful family of Wessex, who had no royal blood but became king after Edward the Confessor. He had to fight for the throne with Duke William of Normandy and he died in the battle of Hastings in 1066. He was the last Anglo-Saxon king.
William of Normandy 1066 to 1087
landed on coast of England and defeated king harold at the battle of hastings. took a census known as domesday book, became king of england
Battle of Samford Bridge
Battle in northern England where Harold Godwinson defeated and killed Harold Haradrada ,of Norway. 9/25/1066
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
Henry I of England 1100 to 1135
The youngest son of William the Conqueror, Henri "Beauclerc" (Good Scholar) ruled not just England but Normandy, as well. He succeeded in strengthening the powers of the English crown and made significant reforms in the royal treasury
Empress Matilda 1141 to 1142
The daughter and heir of King Henry I of England. After her brother's death in 1120 she became her father's sole heir. She married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, thus becoming Holy Roman Empress. After his death, she married Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
King Henry II 1154 to 1189
king that adds Ireland to his domains. most influential monarch of the day. Thomas a Becket murder provided trouble for him.
Thomas a Becket Murder
King Richard the Lionheart 1189 to 1199
the king of England who fought against Saladin in the Crusades (namely the Third Crusade). He never managed to reclaim Jerusalem, but he did strengthen Christian holds near the Holy Land.
Didn't want to take Jerusalem b/c knew Europeans didn't want to live there. First attempt to end conflict was diplomacy: tried to get his sister to marry Aladil, who was Saladin's brother.
Came back in 1194 to put down his brother, John, rebellion and continued warring with French
King John Lackland 1199 to 1216
the king of England. During his kingdom he lost duchy of normandy to King Philip II. Also signed the Magna Carta
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of England was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
King Henry III of England
(r. 1216-1272) kept trying to gain back French lands but always failed. 1258, Provisions of Oxford. 1265, defeat of Simon of Montfort. Baronial unrest.
A famous English champion who lived at the end of the 12th century. He won a tournament then could not be found after to receive his prize. He was found at a blacksmiths, getting his helmet removed from his head.
Leading general in England who chased out the French after the death of King John
He was a famous vassal who had 2 lords, one in England, one in France. When the lords went to war, he could not fight, so he was honored at the time.
Edward I 1272 to 1307
was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III. model parliament, common people in parliament, grandson of Lackland, set precedent for method of taxing.
Ruler that set up the framework for English legislature and Parliament by establishing 2 main houses of government: the House of Commons (included ordinary peasants and citizens of English society). It was established so Edward could ally with the middle class, and allow them a say in their government. The decisions of this house were equal to those of the other house, making nobles and peasants equal and further subtracts noble power. The House of Lords (government house of nobles).
Edward II, 1307 to 1327
Defeated Ordainers in 1322. Overthrown by his queen.
Edward III 1327 to 1377
Reignited war against the Scottish. 1338 English king declared himself rightful heir to French throne, started Hundred Years War.
relyed on parliament to organise the economy and deal with law and order within the realm.
Hundred Years War
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
King Richard II
(1377-1399) 14 years old; decieves peasants in Peasant Revolt; 1399 overthrown/murdered by cousin Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster.
Richard II - The King of England when the play begins, Richard is a young man who has not matured much since his adolescence. Stately and poetic, he enjoys the trappings of kingship and has an extraordinary flair for poetic language. However, he is disconnected from his land and its people. He is overthrown by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, and eventually assassinated in the remote castle of Pomfret.
led by Jack Straw and Wat Tyler in 1381, the first stirrings of demands for individual liberty and human rights on the part of the common people.
Henry IV 1399-1413
1367-1413... 10th king of England.
of Bolingbroke (House of Lancaster) Forced into exile by Richard II he returned to England and lead a baron's revolt that toppled the throne. As a King he was a bad administrator and toward the end of his life his health deteriorated and he became prey to morbid fancies caused by his role in ursurpation.
Henry V 1413-1422
renewed the Hundred Years War with France and won a great victory at Agincourt 1415. He marries Charles VI's daughter and has a son but he dies two months before he could combine the two crowns.
Henry VI 1422-1461
(the rabbit) becomes King at age nine months. Joan of Arc allows France to regain their lost fortunes. The wars of the Roses (1455-85) symbolically represented by the white rose of York and the red of Lancaster was a fight to control the throne. Henry IV is forced to abdicate and imprisoned in the Tower by the Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker). In May of 1471 he is murdered while at praters reputedly on the orders of the Duke of Gloucester, later Richard III
Edward IV 1461-1483
Edward a York defeated Lancastrian forces ->ends the Wars of the Roses, worked to restore royal prestige, crush power of nobility, establish order and law, ruthlessness, efficiency.
Richard III 1483-1485
was going to marry his niece. He is going bring political stability to England. Trade is going to increase during this time. The nobles believe that he didn't have the right to be king because he killed his nephew. Going to be challenged by the house of Lancaster (Tudor family). Henry will be the Tudor that challenges. 1485 Henry will challenge him for the throne at Bosworth Field. He gets killed, and won't even get a proper burial.
a Welsh landowner who married Catherine of Valois after she was widowed after the death of her husband, executed during the battle of Mortimer's Cross.
A squire of an ancient welsh family who secretly married Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V; his grandson Henry, Earl of Richmond, defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field in order to become Henry VII.
War of Roses
1455-1485; A war between the York family and Lancaster family of England for the crown. This struggle was ended when Henry Tudor, who was on the Lancaster side, won. He became Henry VII, the first Tudor king.
Won the War of the Roses, also known as Henry VII.
He was the duke of Richmond who defeated the last Yorkist king Richard III at Bosworth Field in 1485 and created his own dynasty.
Won the War of the Roses,he became Henry VII when he defeated Richard in1485. His dynasty lasted until 1603 and constructed a powerful monarchy. He married Elizabeth of York, the daughter of Edward VI in 1486 to end the conflict between York and Lancaster. Court of the Star chamber was an effective way to enforce royal power in judicial means and uses this to control the nobility. He got economic independence by confiscating noble lands and wealth. He didn't need Parliament for funds.he used English law to strengthen his power and left a stable kingdom for his heirs.
King Henry VIII
(r. 1509-1547) King of England, unhappily married to Catherine of Aragon. He yearned for a son to inherit the throne, that of which his wife could not provide. Broke off with the Roman Church in order to annul his marriage to his wife and later married Anne Boleyn. Created the Anglican Church, the Church of England.
A book wrote by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 about the imperfect conduct of humans and says how a ruler is able to keep power and manage to keep it disregarding enemies.
Queen Mary 1547-1558(death)
As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her brother. Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed after her death in 1558 by her successor and younger half-sister, Elizabeth I. Reigned from July 19, 1553-November, 1558.
Queen Elizabeth I 1558-1603
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Catholic cousin of Elizabeth, executed in 1587 after being found at the center of a number of plots to replace Elizabeth; Catholic who was queen of France until husband's death, queen of Scotland until driven out by Calvinists, thought herself rightful queen of England, but her plots to get the crown lead to her house arrest and eventual beheading
House of Stuart
The royal family that first came to the English throne with James VI of Scotland (James I of England) in 1603. James was succeeded by Charles I, who was executed in 1649. The last Stuart monarch was Anne, who died in 1714. See "Royalists" and "Jacobites." Aphra Behn was a strong adherent of the Stuart cause.
King James I 1603-1625
Mary Queen of Scots son. King of Ireland (known as James VI). Claims English crown after Elizabeths death in 1603. Claimed political legitimacy through a "divine right of kings." The first monarch of England from the House of Stuart, succeeding the last Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I, who died without an heir. In 1606, gave the Virginia Company of London a charger to set up a colony in Virginia.
English conspirator who was executed for his role in a plot to blow up James I and the Houses of Parliament (1570-1606)
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
John Locke 1632-1704
English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
English Civil Warterm-
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
Oliver Cromwell 1653-1658term-51
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
"lord protector" devout puritan, military leader, parliament gained power, restricted behavior.
turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles II 1660-1685
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.
(r. 1660-1685) Restored king of English monarchy who, though uninterested in religious doctrinal issues, cooperated with Parliament and formed a secret agreement with Louis XIV to re-Catholicize England for revenue.
James II 1685-1688
(r. 1685-1688) a Catholic king who greatly angered Parliament nobles and whose actions led to the *Glorious Revolution.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange.
..., This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Glorious Revolution 1688-1689
1688; the parliament deposed King James II, a Roman Catholic who had asserted royal rights over the rights of Parliament. Parliament gave the crown to the Protestant King William III, a Dutch prince, and his British wife, Queen Mary II (daughter of James II), as joint rulers. When the crown was offered to William and Mary, they agreed to a Bill of Rights that severely limited the king or queen's power. The British Bill of Rights is often regarded as a forerunner to the United States Bill of Rights.
British Bill of Rights 1689
also know as the Declaration of Rights, spelled out the rights that were considered to belong to Englishmen; it was granted by King William III in 1689. It had previously been passed by a convention of the Parliament.
(1689) Passed under William and Mary - no armies raised or taxes levied without consent of Parliament, due process could not be taken away and the King had to abide by the law
William of Orange/III/II 1689-1702
King of England and Scotland and Ireland, he married the daughter of James II and was invited by opponents of James II to invade England; when James fled, William III and Mary II were declared joint monarchs (1650-1702)
Mary II 1689-1694
(1689-1694) This daughter of James II came to the throne and ruled jointly with her husband and 1st cousin, William of Orange, when James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution. William continues to hold the crown until 1702 after she dies in 1694
A tax levied on certain documents, by requiring a stamp to be purchased and attached to the document. It has been used on documents such as cheques, land sales and share sales (to take ownership of the land or share, you must possess a legal document, and this document is valid only if it is stamped).
Act of Settlement
1701 law by Parliament stating that should William III die heirless, Mary's Protestant sister, Anne, would take the throne, thereby protecting Protestant rule in England. If Anne dies, George I becomes King
Queen Anne 1702-1713
(1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe. Grows ill and unhealthy. Dies without leaving an heir
Sophia of Hanover
heiress to the crowns of England and Ireland and later of the crown of Great Britain. She was declared heir presumptive by the Act of Settlement - all of her children died and she died before she came to the throne
Act of Union
1701 act of Parliament uniting England and Scotland into one kingdom: Great Britain. Intended to strengthen England against France. Abolished the Scottish Parliament.
House of Hanover
the English royal house that reigned from 1714 to 1901 (from George I to Victoria).
This is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneberg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ruled england from george I to victoria.
hardcore loyalists who wanted to return James II to the throne. They were supported by France and Louis XIV.
The Jacobites are always listed first of the three secondary peoples among the Nephites. They were descendants of Nephi's younger brother, Jacob. Nothing is said of them as a group except that they were counted as Nephites politically and culturally. Since Jacob himself was chief priest under the kingship of his brother Nephi, and since he and his descendants maintained the religious records begun by Nephi, it is possible that the Jacobites as a lineage group bore some special priestly responsibilities.
Establishes House of Hanover. Son of Sophia. British saw him as too German, however, being Protestant helped earn some support. Disliked being in public. Traveled incognito, avoided his royal box in the opera.
Put down Jacobites. Founded August George University. Chartered Kings college/ today Columbia University.
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
(1760-1820) wanted reform + to break the Whig stranglehold on gov.; the king and his ministers agreed that reform was needed, shifted burden of taxation from Britain to North America; Parliament passed series of duties on goods imported into the colonies including glass, wine, coffee, tea, and most notably, sugar in the Sugar Act (1764); also tax on printed papers such as newspapers,deeds, court documents in the Stamp Act (1765)
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Whig leader who was opposed to many of the reforms being touted. Was founder of philosophical conservatism, yet in his own way a reformer. He was more concerned that the H of C should be independent and responsible than that is should be mathematically representative. Thought that the landowning interest should govern. Pleaded for a strong sense of party in opposition to royal encroachments. Argued that members of Parliament should follow their own best judgment of the country's interests, bound neither by the king nor by their own constituents.
(1759-1833) Reformer who led the fight to abolish the slave trade and slavery.
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
John Stuart Mill
English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism (1806-1873).
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
George IV 1820-1830
reigned 1820-1830. Son of George III. He led an extravagant lifestyle, and he commissioned workers to rebuild many palaces including Buckingham Palace. He had a poor relationship with his wife, and forbade her to attend his extravagant coronation. He had a partying lifestyle, and that brought the ire of the English people. His only child, Charlotte, died in 1817. His ministers found his ways selfish and irresponsible. He grew fatter over his last 20 years. In 1821 he became the first English monarch since Richard II to visit Ireland. He died an unpopular figure in England.
Succeeded George IV as king of England. His ascension initiated Parliamentary election and reform.
reigned 1830-1837. The third son of George III. Never expecting to become King, he was a officer in the Royal Navy. He was nicknamed the 'Sailor King'. At the age of 64, he inherited the throne because of no legitimate children born by his older two brothers. He had a very formal coronation, very different from his brother, George. Parliament passed the Reform Act in 1832, reforming the electoral system. He had 10 illegitimate children with an actress. All slavery in the British Empire was abolished during his reign. At his death, the thrones of Hanover and Britain split, due to Salic law preventing a woman from becoming queen in Hanover.
First Reform Act 1832
Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.
changed Britain's electoral laws. Widened suffrage only slightly, but did much to improve districting and the general operation of the voting system. First step to democracy.
Buckingham Palace 1837-present
London residence of UK sovereigns since 1837.
German law that crown must be passed through male relatives; used by France in 100 Years War to keep crown from Edward III
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
supported a postal union and common currency among the German states. Brother in law was Frederick William III of Prussia.
Queen Victoria 1837-1901
British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement.
1837, rose to the throne of England at the age of 19 and ruled for 64 years. Longest ruling queen of England. She was a proponent of the industrial revolution and associated herself with proper moral conduct known as Victorian morality. During her reign England conquered India. She married Albert and had 9 children. Mourned Albert for 20 years. "Longest Mourning"
-Victorian ideals: duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, respectability
British queen from 1837-1901 with the longest reign in English history who helped to stabilize the economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India.
Edward VII 1901-1910
British monarch after Victoria's death.
"Uncle of Europe"
made NZ a Dominion
1901-1910 Prince of Wales and was the longest heir before taking the throne. Edwardian Era technology and society advanced with powered flight and communism. Modernized the British Home Fleet and reformed the Army and Medical Services and reorganized the army after the Second Boer War. Known as the Peacemaker but relations with Wilhelm II of Germany was poor. First member of the House of Saxe Coburg and Gotha.
King of Great Britain and Ireland and emperor of India from 1910 to 1936.
1910-1936 Served in the Royal Navy and was King during WWI. Changed the name of the house Saxe Coburg to Windsor as a result of anti German feelings..
(1910-1936) He was king during WWI and his reign witnessed the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism and the first Labour ministry.
(1936-1952) The 2nd son of George V, took over when his brother abdicated. His reign witnessed WWII, the independence of India and Pakistan (1947) and the foundation of the Republic of Ireland (1949). Under him, Great Britain transitioned into the Commonwealth of Nations of which he was the head.
Commonwealth of Nations
an association of nations consisting of the United Kingdom and its dependencies and many former British colonies that are now sovereign states but owe allegiance to the British Crown.
a voluntary association of independent nations and dependent territories linked by historical ties (as parts of the former British Empire) and cooperating on matters of mutual concern, esp. regarding economics and trade.