100 terms

CDL General Knowledge (Secs. 1, 2, 3, 12, 13)

Who must have a CDL?
1. Operate a vehicle with a GVWR more than 26,000lbs
2. Trailers with a GVWR more than 10,000lbs if the gross comb weight rating is more than 26,000lbs
3. More than 15 persons including driver
4. Vehicles with hazardous materials placards
Can you have more than one license?
No. You can be fined up to $5,000 or put in jail.
How long do you have to notify employer of conviction of a traffic violation?
30 days (except parking).
How long do you have to notify your vehicle licensing agency of convictions in another jurisdiction?
30 days (except parking)
How much driving history must you give your employer?
All driving jobs held for the past 10 years. Do this when you apply.
What is the fine for driving without a CDL?
Up to $5,000 or jail
How first-time offenses will cause the loss of CDL?
All one year
- Driving a CMV under the influence
- Leaving the scene of an accident of your CMV
- Using your CMV to commit a felony
- Refusing sobriety test while driving CMV
- Causing death of other negligent or criminal operation of CMV
- Driving a CMV while CDL is revoked, suspended, canceled or disqualified
- If offense occurs while driving placarded for hazard material it is 3 years
When will you lose CDL for life?
Second offense
Using CMV to commit a felony involving controlled substances
What offenses result in 60-day loss of CDL?
- 2 serious traffic violations or 1 violation of a law regulating rr crossing within a 3-year period involving a CMV
What offenses result in a 120-day loss of CDL?
3 serious traffic violations or 2 violations at rr crossing within a 3-year period
What results in 1-year loss of CDL?
3 violations of a law at rr crossing within a 3-year period
What are considered serious traffic violations?
excessive speeding (+15mph), reckless driving, improper or erratic lane changes, following too closely, fatal traffic accidents, driving CMV without a CDL, driving CMV without CDL in possession.
When is it illegal to drive a CMV?
When BAC is .04% or more. You lose CDL for one year on first offense, life on second. If less than .04% and detectable then out of service for 24 hours.
How much tread depth is needed?
4/32" on front tires, 2/32" on other tires.
Can radial and bias-ply tires be used together?
Can regrooved, recapped, or retreaded tires be used on the front wheels of a bus?
What are the signs of a damaged rim?
Rust around wheel nuts may mean looseness.
Missing clamps, spacers, studs, or lugs
Mismatched, bent, or cracked lock rings
Wheels or rims with welding reparis.
What are the signs of bad brake drums or shoes?
Cracked drums
Shoes with grease or oil
Shoes worn thin, broken, missing
What are the signs of a steering system defect?
Steering wheel play of more than 10 degrees.
What are signs of suspension system defects?
Spring hangers, leaves, shock absorbers, torque rod or arm, u-bolts
What are signs of exhaust system defects?
exhaust pipes, mufflers, tailpipes, vertical stacks,
What is your responsibility if cargo contains hazardous materials?
Inspect for proper papers and placarding. Make sure cargo is balanced and secure.
What are the seven steps in a pre-trip inspection?
1. Vehicle overview
2. Check engine compartment (parking brake on and wheels chocked)
3. Start engine and inspect inside cab
4. Turn off engine and check lights (parking brake on, turn off engine, take key)
5. Do walk-around inspection
6. Check signal lights
7. Start engine and check brake system
How do you check hydraulic brakes?
Pump brake pedal 3x, then apply firm pressure to the pedal and hold for 5 secs. The pedal should not move. If it does there is a leak or problem that needs to be fixed.
How often does an in trip check need to occur?
Within the first 25-miles of the trip and every 150 miles or every three hours (whichever comes first)
How do I turn when backing with a trailer?
With a bus, car, or straight truck you turn the top of the wheel toward the direction you want to go.
With a trailer, you turn the steering wheel in the opposite direction.
How do you correct drift when backing?
When the trailer drifts, correct it by turning the top of the steering wheel in the direction of the drift.
How do you shift up in a manual transmission?
Requires double clutching to change gears:
1. Release accelerator, push in clutch and shift to neutral
2. Release clutch
3. Let engine and gears slow down to rpm required for next gear
4. Push in clutch and shift to higher gear
5. Release clutch and push accelerator at same time
When do you shift up?
1. Use engine speed (rpm)
2. Use road speed (mph)
How do you shift down in a manual transmission?
1. Release accelerator, push in clutch and shift to neutral
2. Release clutch
3. Press accelerator, increase engine and gear speed to rpm required in lower gear
4. Push in clutch and shift to lower gear
5. Release clutch and press accelerator
When should you downshift?
1. Before starting down a hill. Usually in a lower gear then needed to climb the hill.
2. Before entering a curve.
What is a multi-speed rear axle and auxilliary transmission?
Used to provide extra gears. Usually controlled by a selector knob.
What is a retarder?
It helps slow a vehicle reducing the need for using brakes. Many types (exhaust, engine, hydraulic, electric). When turned on they apply their braking power (to the drive wheels only) whenever you let up on the accelerator pedal all the way.
When should you turn the retarder off?
When it is wet, icy, or snow because the drive wheels can have poor traction and the retarder may cause them to skid.
How far ahead should you look down the road?
12-15 seconds. At low speeds that is a block, a 1/4 mile at highway.
What should you do if driving slowly?
Turn on emergency flashers if its legal.
How long do you have to put out emergency warning devices if stopped on the road?
10 minutes.
Where do you place warnings if stopped on a two-lane road carrying traffic in both directions or on an undivided highway?
Within 10' of the front or rear corners to mark location, and 100' behind and ahead.
Where do you place warnings if stopped beyond any hill, curve, or other obstruction that prevents seeing within 500'?
10' of the rear corner, 100' ahead, 100'-500' behind
Where do you place warning if you stop on a one-way or divided highway?
Within 10', 100' and 200' toward the approaching traffic.
What three things add up to total stopping distance?
Perception distance + Reaction distance + braking distance. At 55mph it takes 290 feet or 6 seconds.
What is the effect of speed on stopping distance?
When you double your speed, it takes about 4x as much distance to stop and vehicle will have 4x the destructive power.
What is the effect of weight on stopping distance?
The heavier the more work the brakes do, but heavy vehicles are designed to work best when fully loaded. Empty trucks require greater stopping distance b/c there is less traction. (not usually the case with buses though)
What is traction?
Friction between the tires and the road.
How much space should you keep in front of you?
One second for each 10' of vehicle length at speeds below 40mph. At greater speeds, add one second. (e.g. 40-ft vehicles needs 4 seconds under 40mph, and 5 seconds over 40mph)
What is glare blindness?
Blinded by bright lights. 2 seconds of glare blindness at 55mph is more than half the distance of a football field.
How far ahead can you see with low beams?
How far ahead can you see with high beams?
How close must another vechicle be before you dim your brights?
500' of an oncoming and when you are following another.
How often should you check the tires in hot weather?
Every two hours or 100-miles. Air pressure increases with temperature. Do not let air out or the tires will be low when they cool off. If the tire is hot to the touch, remain stopped until it cools off or it may blow out or catch fire.
What purpose do escape ramps serve?
To stop runaway vehicles safely without injuring drivers and passengers.
What is a hazard?
Any road condition or other road user (driver, bicyclist, pedestrian) that is a possible danger.
What is a conflict?
When you have to change speed and/or direction to avoid hitting someone. They usually occur at intersections, merges, lane changes, slow moving traffic, accident scenes.
What is a traffic emergency?
When two vehicles are about to collide
What is a vehicle emergency?
When tires, brakes, or other critical parts fail.
Is stopping ALWAYS the safest thing to in an emergency?
No. If you don't have room to stop then you need to steer to avoid it.
How should you turn to avoid an emergency?
- do not apply the brakes
- be prepared to countersteer
- moving to the right is best, an empty lane
What guidelines are important if you have to go off the road?
- avoid braking until speed has dropped to about 20mph
- Keep one set of wheels on the pavement if possible
- Stay on the shoulder until you come to a stop.
How should I return to the road from the shoulder?
Turn sharply enough to get right back on the road safely, don't try to edge on gradually b/c the tires might grab and you can lose control. When both front tires are on the paved surface, countersteer immediately.
What causes hydraulic brake failure?
1. loss of hydraulic pressure
2. brake fade on long hills
What can you do in case of hydraulic brake failure?
If the system won't build up pressure, the brake pedal will feel spongy or go to the floor. Then:
1. downshift
2. pump the brakes because this will sometimes generate enough hydraulic pressure
3. use the parking brake. The parking brake is seperate from the hydraulic system. Be sure to press the release button at the same time so you can adjust the pressure.
What are the major signs of tire failure?
1. Sound of a bang
2. Vibration (sign rear tire is out)
3. The steering wheel feels heavy (sign front tire is out)
What are the four causes of skids?
1. Over-braking
2. Over-steering
3. Over-acceleration
4. Driving too fast
What is over-braking?
Braking too hard and locking up the wheels. Can also occur with the speed retarder when the road is slippery.
What are drive-wheel skids?
The most common type of skid where the rear wheels lose traction through excessive braking or acceleration.
What happens in a rear-wheel skid?
The rear wheels lose traction and usually slide sideways in an attempt to "catch-up" to the front wheels. This can cause a "spin-out" or a jackknife with a trailer.
How do you correct a rear-wheel skid?
1. Stop braking - let the wheels roll again. On ice, push in the clutch to let the wheels turn.
2. Turn quickly - Steer in the direction you want the vehicle to go down the road.
3. Countersteer - As it gets back on course it wants to keep turning. Turning the other way prevents that skid.
Where is the best place to practice a rear-wheel skid?
A large driving range called a "skid-pad"
What causes front-wheel skids?
Driving too fast for conditions is most common. Others are:
- lack of tread on the front tires
- cargo loaded so not enough weight is on the front axle
What happens in a front-wheel skid?
The front end tends to go in a straight line no matter how much you turn the steering wheel.
How do you correct a front-wheel skid?
Let the vehicle slow down and stop turning and/or braking so hard.
What are the basic steps to do in an accident?
1. Protect the area
2. Notify authorites
3. Care for the injured
What is a B:C fire extinguisher?
Works on electrical fires and burning liquids
What is an A:B:C fire extinguisher?
Also works on burning wood, paper, and cloth.
What fire can water be used on?
Wood, paper or cloth, a burning tire
What fire shouldn't you use water on?
Electrical (you could get shocked) and gasoline (spreads the flames)
How do you extinguish the fire?
1. only do it if you know what you are doing
2. when using an extinguisher stay as far away as possible
3. Aim at the source or base of the fire
4. Position yourself upwind
What drinks are comparable?
1. a 12-oz glass of 5% beer
2. a 5-oz glass of 12% wine
3. a 1.5oz. shot of 80 proof liquor
What determines BAC?
The amount you drink, how fast you drink, and your weight
How many hazard classes are there?
What is the purpose of the transportation rules for hazardouse materials?
1. to contain the product
2. to communicate the risk
3. to ensure safe drivers and equipment
How do you communicate the risk of hazardous materials?
1. a shipping paper that describes the materials (e.g. shipping orders, bills of lading, manifests).
2. Putting the diamond label on the container or a tag if it won't fit on the container.
3. Putting a tab on the shipping papers or keeping them on top of other papers in case of an accident.
Where must shipping papers be kept?
1. in a pouch on the driver's door
2. In a clear view within reach while driving
3. On the driver's seat when out of the vehicle
What are the rules for placards?
There must be four identical placards put on front, rear, and both sides.
10/75" square, turned upright on a point, in a diamond shape.
Do all vehicles carrying hazardous materials needs placards?
No. You can drive a vehicle that carries hazardous materials if it does not require placards. If it requires placards then you must not drive it unless you have an endorsement.
What part of the cargo is the driver responsible for?
1. inspecting the cargo
2. recognizing overloads and poorly balanced weight
3. knowing if your cargo is properly secured
How often should you inspect your cargo?
- within 25 miles after starting a trip.
- every 3hours/150 miles
- after every break
Define Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The total weight of a single vehicle + load
Define Gross Combination Weight (GCW)
The total weight of a powered unit + trailers + cargo
Define Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
The max GVW supplied by the manufacturer for a specific combination of vehicles + its load
Define Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)
The max GCW specified by the manufacturer
Define Axle weight
The weight transmitted to the ground by one axle or one set of axles
Define tire load
The max safe weight a tire can carry at a specified pressure. Stated on the side of each tire.
Define coupling device capacity
Rated for the max weight they can pull or carry
What is a bridge formula?
Permits less maximum axle weight for axles that are closer together. This prevents overloading bridges and roadways.
What is blocking?
Used in the front, back, and/or sides of a piece of cargo to keep it from sliding. Shaped to fit snugly against the cargo.
What is bracing?
Used to prevent movement of cargo. Goes from the upper part of the cargo to the floor and/or walls of the cargo compartment.
What are the rules for cargo tiedowns?
- Combined strength must be strong enough to lift one and one half times the weight of the piece of cargo tied down.
- There should be at least one tiedown for each 10' of cargo.
- No matter how small the cargo it should have at least two tiedowns holding it.
What are special forms of cargo requiring attention?
1. Dry bulk - often have a high center of gravity and can shift.
2. Hanging meat - high center of gravity
3. Livestock - with less of a full load use false bulkheads to keep livestock bunched together.
4. Oversized loads - special transit permits, limited to certain times, special equipment.
What is unsafe coasting?
When approaching a turn you take your vehicle out of gear clutch depressed or gearshift in neutral for more than the length of the vehicle.