Aristotle thought that a person skilled in a particular activity possessed a habit (hexis) for appropriate conduct in that sphere. (152)
Attributes of character (or habits):
1. Phronesis- a person's mental habits—intelligence, clearheaded, reasonable, etc.
2. Arête- a person's moral habits—people who speak with integrity: justice, courage, temperance, generosity, magnaminity, magnificence, prudence
3. Eudaimonia- a person's emotional habits, especially as they reveal a disposition of good or will toward us as an audience. (good will)
What rhetoric does:
A. Situated action-(situation) the context or setting of rhetoric or where it takes place. rhetorical events always are relevant to the situation.
b. Symbolic action- the use of symbols to coordinate action
d. Social action- Rhetoric, then, is concerned with the use of symbols (language) to induce social action
Transaction- there are exchanges between people. the rhetor and the audience
Strategic action- we use rhetoric to accomplish goals
Constitutive action- rhetorical acts can help us understand reality.
Situated Action- the context or setting. Where rhetoric takes place
Symbolic action- rhetoric is.... The use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols (burke)
Transaction- rhetoric as the study of misunderstandings and their remedies
Social Action- One person attempting to engage another person
Engagement through symbols, symbols influence perceptions, & coordinate responses in acts of cooperation
Significance, ways perceived, understood, and resolved are social constructs
how humans use symbols (language) to reach agreement that permits coordinated efforts of some sort.
Strategic Action- establish a goal and then figure out how to get there. The goal and the means to getting there relative to the obstacles in the way
Constitutive Action- study of discourse, events, objects, that attends to their character as meaningful, legible (able to understand it in it's setting), partisan (one specific group compared to another. Aka no absolute truth or partial), consequential (it has effects, immediately or in the future) and public (blair, Dickinson)
McGee: "An ideograph is an ordinary-language term found in political discourse. It is a high-order abstraction representing collective commitment to a particular but equivocal and ill-defined normative goal." Ideographs "signify and 'contain' a unique ideological commitment...."
Robertson: defined ideographs as "POLITICAL SLOGANS THAT ENCAPSULATE IDEOLOGY IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE."
"Ideographs are, then, those recurrent words, labels or expressions that GUIDE AND WARRANT BEHAVIOR AND BELIEF; a culture's ideographs are its dominant 'vocabulary' of motives."
Also characterized a "god" and "devil" terms.
Examples: liberty, property, rule of law, religion, right of privacy, freedom of speech, etc.
Function in public discourse?? They have to be in context-- it can appear to be uniting people but one you see what people really think he ideograph means, then you see they can be incredibly powerful and also incredibly problematic.
Assumptions of post-structuralist thought:
1. Rejects totalizing, essentialist, foundationalist concepts.
2. Contests the concept of 'man' as sacred, separate and intact, their minds the only true realm of meaning and value, their rights individual and inalienable, rooted in a universal and transhistorical context. Instead, subject are created through cultural meanings and practices; are material beings embodied and present in the physical world; social in their very origin.
3. Sees "reality" as fragmented, diverse, tenuous and culture-specific.
4. Sees us living in a linguistic universe.
5. All meaning is textual and intertextual—there is 'outside of the text.'
6. Discourse is a material practice.
7. Discourse is controlled, selected, organized and distributed by a certain number of proceures (Foucault).
8. Texts are marked by a surplus of meaning...different readings are inevitable.
9. A "text" exists as read.
Post-structuralism is a reaction to structuralism. Mainly THE READER REPLACES THE AUTHOR AS THE PRIMARY SUBJECT OF FOCUS. We examine why audiences would feel certain ways ( by studying cultural norms, current events, other literature) but this is never certain and contains no consistency. A reader's culture and society share at least an equal part in post-structuralism interpretations of texts as does the analysis of a piece through the cultural and social circumstances of the author.
"Pocohantas transforms colonialism into a benevolent ideology of good-will, proto-environmentalism, proto-feminism, and cross-cultural tolerance, a soothing tonic with which to heal public social ills. As such, Pocohantas is a neocolonialist text. It masks present-day colonialist relations inherited from the past and appropriates contemporary social issues such as feminism, environmentalism, and human freedom in order to justify both fear of people of color and beliefs of their inferiority." (129)
Colonialism- push your culture, values on people. if you take this definition and then adding the appearance of being pro environmentalist and pro feminist to justify what's really going on (. There's a real fear of interracial mixture, but by camouflaging that
If you take the fundamental things of colonialism (exploitation, etc) they are much more difficult for people to accept, but you can obscure them through feminism, etc.
!!!Noecolonialism becomes a way to hide the corruption thats really going on.!!!!
"Neocolonialsims employs contemporary ideological and economic strategies to make racism, genocide, sexism, nationalism, and inequitable capital distribution appear necessary." (130)
"The film relies on historical representations and, thus, does not persuade audience members to accept a new ideology so much as it ratifies their unspoken, taken-for-granted attitudes and assumptions about colonialism's necessity." (130)
THE CIVILIZING PROCESS—"THEY [COLONIZERS] TEACH THEM THEIR LANGUAGE, LOGIC, AND HISTORY " (131)
Colonialism was needed so that the "natives" could "progress." (131)
"Pocohantas enacts the colonialist narrative and in so doing legitimates a cultural framework rooted in racism, anti-mescegenation, patriarchy, and capitalism." (151)
Argue that emotional display can become a mode of dissent (just dissent?) (6)
Iconic photo: "those photographic images produced in print, electronic, or digital media that are recognized by everyone, are understood to be representations of historically significant events, activate strong emotional identification or response, and are regularly reproduced across a range of media, genres, or topics." (7)
ICONIC PHOTOS REFLECT SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE AND DOMINATE IDEOLOGIES, THEY SHAPE UNDERSTANDING OF SPECIFIC EVENTS AND PERIODS (THEN AND SUBSEQUENTLY), THEY INFLUENCE POLITICAL ACTION both topically and by modeling relationships between civic actors, and they provide figural resources for subsequent communicative action." (7)
The icon doesn't so much record and event as it organizes a field of interpretations to manage a basic contradiction or recurrent crisis within the public culture." (8)
"The girl becomes a model citizen of the public sphere because she is capable of spontaneous, profound, authentic grief and rage on behalf of a fellow citizen." (13)
"At the very moment that the public is to see itself overcome by the justified emotion of outrage, it also is to stand to the side of itself, capable of calculating and monitoring its actions in respect to conceptions of order and purpose." (14-5)
They argue that we should see "emotions as shared (intersubjective) moods created by performance of appropriate gestures in a social space." (16)
How would post structuralists explain who I am: your culture and language, etc etc:
1 created through cultural practices
2. enact a variety of shifting roles
3. are material beings, embodies and present
4. are social and formed socially
Everything ins post structuralism is more complicated. there is no right answer. No order. This is the idea of overdetermination. Overdetermination says bitzer's ideas are false.
Bitzer is structuralist (theres a scheme and structure behind things) Figure out exigence, audience, constraints and you can know everythings. Structuralists have an idea of things are this way, I get meaning from language in this way, there is structure. there are principles behind everything.
Post- structuralist people:
• Created through cultural practices. Pocahontas encountered john smith—countered with culture pre suppositions and cultural practices, starts to question her own subjectivity within that particular culture. Wants to follow john smith instead of the demands of her father
• As a result of that we enact a variety of shifting roles (were family members, employees, members of X nation, X gender, sexual orientation, etc) we constantly shift our identities depending on the moment in time we are operating
• Instead of everything being grounded in language, we are material beings embodied and present (if were cool and calm before an exam, our body will help our performance, vs being anxious). Are we hungry, physically comfortable, sexually aroused, etc
• Our sense of who we are is constituted socially and formed socially. Burke says were beings who seek to induce cooperation. We exist in social groups and cant take that away