Juvi Final Exam

Why is early puberty associated with girls' delinquency?
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Family Breakup: leads to antisocial behavior. Less stability in modern families leads to problems and hyperactivity. Associates with hostility and aggression.

Family Conflict: A child's perception of parent's happiness is a HUGE delinquency predictor. Culture of violence. Little difference in effect of victim and witness in child conflict. Negative cycle of delinquency and relationships.

Family Effectiveness: Poor parenting skills increase risk of delinquency. NEED consistent discipline and supervision and communication.

Family Deviance: Criminals beget criminals for many reasons.
Know what percent of teens giving birth (today) are unmarried90%Approximately how many children live in poverty today?6 MillionKnow how control theory would explain the association between delinquent peers and youth's own delinquency.Delinquents lack the social skills necessary to make peer relationships fulfilling. So, they seek out similar kids and commit crimes together. "birds of a feather flock together"How would routine activities theory explain peer delinquency?Kids offending often have an unstructured social life without parental controls and therefor have more opportunities to commit crimesHow would labeling theory explain peer delinquency?Labeling Theory: deviant kids are forced to choose deviant friendsHow would social learning theory explain peer delinquency?Social Learning: delinquent kids cause other kids to get in trouble. They learn behavior from bad crowds.Know which racial group is least likely to live in a two-parent family.African AmericansWhat percent of children now live in a two-parent family?68%Know how gang delinquency is defined.3+ members, shared identity, self-recognition&external recognition, permanence/organization, crime.Know how gang members spend the bulk of their timeJust hanging out and partying.What is the main reason given for gang member migration within the United States?Social reasons (families relocate for work)Know the reason why gang members are staying in gangs for a longer portion of their life courseThe U.S. economy no longer offers high-paid, low skill labor for gang members to graduate to.Know what percent of gang members members are female1/3Know the various explanations for why youth join gangs (anthropological, rational choice, psychological).Anthropological: gangs appeal to kids tribal instincts (signs/symbols) Rational Choice: kids join for protection, fun, & survival. Psychological: kids w/ personality problems join gangs and thrive (anti-social, destructive, violent)What are some of the problems facing the U.S. educational system?Poor reading scores along racial/ethnic boundaries creating a disparity. U.S. trails other countries in education & devotes less money to it. Still, there are budget cuts.Identify the long-term effect on adolescents of dropping out of schoolpoverty, unemployment, poor health, incarcerationHow do researchers explain the link between school drop-out and delinquency?They have the same causesWhat rights do schools have to censor student speech (consider both active and passive speech)?Active speech can be censored only if they undermine the educational mission. (You CAN censor student publications) Passive speech can be censored only if it interferes with school operations. (Tinker vs Des Moines)What rights do police vs. educators have to search students in school?Police: "probable cause" Educators: can search grounds, can personally search w/ reasonable suspicionKnow the most widely used drug amongst teenagers (not including alcohol)potWhat drug is thought to be a factor in nearly half of all murders, suicides, and accidental deaths?AlcoholIdentify the difference between delinquency control and prevention programs/policies.control: the criminal justice efforts. Prevention: intervening with at-risk youth,How does the Juvenile Justice System differ from the Criminal Justice System?The focus is on treatment and protection. They take in status offenses. The entire process is private.What is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?probationWhat do we mean when we say that the Juvenile Justice system uses a bifurcated process after juveniles have been arrested?The system requires a dispositional hearing before and separate from adjudication.Lombroso's view of female delinquencywomen were lower on the evolutionary scale than men, more childlike, and less intelligent. Women who committed crimes could be distinguished from "normal" women by physical characteristics—excessive body hair, wrinkles, and an abnormal cranium, for example. In appearance, delinquent females appeared closer to men than to other women.Gender Schema TheoryA theory of development that holds that children internalize gender scripts that reflect the genderrelated social practices of the culture. Once internalized,these gender scripts predispose the kids to construct a self-identity that is consistent with them.Masculinity Hypothesisthe few "true" female delinquents were sexual oddities whose criminal activity was a function of having masculine traits and characteristicsChivalry HypothesisThe view that low female crime and delinquency rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.Penis envyoften produces an inferiority complex in girls, forcing them to make an effort to compensate for their "defect." One way to compensate is to identify with their mothers and accept a maternal role. Also, girls may attempt to compensate for their lack of a penis by dressing well and beautifying themselves.Blended FamilyNuclear families that are the product of divorce and remarriage, blending one parent from each of two families and their combined children into one family unit. Less stable.Resource DilutionThe larger the family, the more likely that children will be delinquent as there is less social and financial capital to go around.Cliquesmall groups of friends who share activities and confidences.Crowdloosely organized groups of children who share interests and activities, such as sports, religion, or hobbies.Interstitial AreasAn area of the city that forms when there is a crack in the social fabric and in which deviant groups, cliques and gangs form.Chronic underachieverresearchers find that school failure is a stronger predictor of delinquency than variables such as economic class membership, racial or ethnic background, or peer-group relationsin loco parentisIn the place of the parent; rights given to schools that allow them to assume parental duties indisciplining students.Adjudication hearingtrial, 1st partDisposition hearingHearing to decide the punishment/treatment, 2nd Part. Takes history and circumstances into consideration.PetitionDocument filed in juvenile court alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent, a status offender, or a dependent and asking that the court assume jurisdiction over the juvenile.