Terms in this set (37)
Environmental problems caused by air pollution
- photochemical smog
- particulate matter (especially fine PM)
- acid deposition
- ozone depletion
- global warming
- health problems caused by the emission of 'air toxics' such as mercury, lead, and carbon monoxide
caused by the emission of VOCs and NOx
secondary pollutant formed by emissions of SO2, NOx, and VOCs
caused by emissions of SO2 (sulfur dioxide mostly from fossil fuel combustion at powerplants, partially industrial processes: fueling locomotives and extracting metal from ore) and NOx (nitrogen oxide mostly from fossil fuel combustion)
caused by the emission of CFCs, HFCs, halons, and a few other compounds
caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. Mostly CO2, N2O, CH4
small molecules containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms. Were used primarily as refrigerants. Their emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. They are a greenhouse gas
A principle of risk management that essentially reduces the burden of scientific "proof" that is required before an action is taken. States that actions will be taken to reduce risk even in the absence of complete scientific certainty if the risk is potentially grave enough.
- nutrient pollution
- livestock waste
- crop residue
- methane from livestock
- ammonia from livestock operations
- fossil fuels from agricultural operations
kill nontarget organisms and threaten human health by polluting food and groundwater.
nutrient pollution from fertilizers
nitrogen (as nitrates and ammonium salts) and phosphorus (as phosphates) cause eutrophication. Nitrate contamination of groundwater is widespread and directly toxic. Nitrous oxide production due to nitrification and denitrification also increases; nitrous oxide depletes ozone and is a greenhouse gas
contaminates surface waters, introducing pathogens, stimulating eutrophication, and directly depleting oxygen levels (in bodies of water)
deplete oxygen levels (increase BOD)
Methane from livestock
strong greenhouse gas and also contributes to ozone depletion
Ammonia from livestock operations
Fossil fuels used in agricultural operations
release NOx, VOCs, CO, CO2; these cause smog, PM, acid deposition, directly threaten human health and contribute to global climate change.
Greenhouse gases present naturally in the environment
- water H2O
- carbon dioxide CO2
- nitrous oxide N2O
- methane CH4
- ozone O3
CFCs linger in the troposphere until they are removed through transport on the tropopause (10-15km high). Exchange on the tropopause is slow, takes 5-10 years on average for CFC molecules to enter the stratosphere from the troposphere.
photodissociation of CFCs
with increasing altitude in the stratosphere, CFCs are exposed to more energetic UV light. Exposure causes CFCs to photodissociate and release Chlorine
the measure of the imbalance in the earth's incoming and outgoing energy. (measured in watts per square meter, W/m^2) Caused my change in concentration of one or more GHGs in the atmosphere
when there is a balance in the amount of energy absorbed as sunlight and the amount of energy lost as infrared (IR) radiation
authority mandated pollution control through legislation enforced by penalties such as fines or imprisonment
type of CAC regulation. Sets a limit for pollutant exposure
emission standards (performance standards)
type of CAC regulation. Sets limit on the discharge rate of a pollutant
technology standard (technology forcing)
mandates the technology or practices to be used in controlling pollution
Incentive based regulation
pollution control based on internalizing the economic costs of using environmental services (in this case pollution assimilation).
pollution charges and subsidies
taxes on every unit of pollutant discharge or subsidies offered to companies with lower emissions
transferable discharge permits (TDPs)
allows polluters to buy and sell the right to pollute. Essentially establishes property rights over a CRP
CO, O3, NO2, SO2, lead, PM(2.5 and 10)
emissions trading, clean development mechanisms (CDMs), joint implementation
clean development mechanisms (CDMs)
Annex 1 countries can get emissions reduction credits toward their target by reducing emissions from non-Annex countries through technology transfer.
similar to CDMs but technology transfer is between two Annex-1 countries. One usually being a country with an Economy in transition (CEIT)
epidemiological methods used to study dose-response of environmental pollutants
time-series studies, transversal studies, perspective studies
the study of the correlation between the dose of one or more pollutants and the health of humans or ecosystems exposed to that pollutant
variables other than pollution level that could have also affected human/ecosystem health in a particular epidemiological study. (examples: climate, socioeconomic status, or lifestyle choices)
sever pollution episodes can result in a short-term increase in mortality. Many who die in these episodes would have died soon anyway. Distorts the actual effect of such pollution events. Existence of a more susceptible sub-population (children, elderly, those already sick) can cause a hockey-stick dose response curve that exhibits a sharp increase then plateau at higher pollutant concentration.
Part of the UNFCCC created at the 1992 Rio Convention (first Earth summit). Purpose of the UNFCCC (therefore Kyoto also) was to reduce and maintain a level of GHG emissions that would prevent dangerous anthropomorphic interference within climate systems. Kyoto: signed Annex-1 countries promised to reduce emissions by 5.2% of 1990 emissions by 2012. Specified emission reduction targets for Annex-1 countries.
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