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Life-Span Human Development - Chapter 3 Genes, Environment, and Development
Terms in this set (68)
The genetic endowment that members of a particular species have in common; a contributor to universal species traits and patterns of maturation.
The evolutionary principle that individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a particular environment are most likely to survive and reproduce. Over many generations, this process of "survival of the fittest" will lead to changes in a species and the development of new species.
The application of evolutionary theory and its concept of natural selection to understanding why humans think and behave as they do.
Change in a species achieved not through biological evolution but through learning and passing on from one generation to the next new ways of adapting to the environment.
The moment of fertilization, when a sperm penetrates an ovum, forming a zygote.
A single cell formed at conception from the union of a sperm and an ovum.
A threadlike structure made up of genes; in humans, there are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell.
The process in which a germ cell divides, producing sperm or ova, each containing half of the parent cell's original complement of chromosomes; in humans, the products of meiosis normally contain 23 chromosomes.
The process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into two genetically identical daughter cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the double helix molecule whose chemical code makes up chromosomes and serves as our genetic endowment; it is made up of sequences of the chemicals (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), and T (thymine).
Human Genome Project
The massive, government-sponsored effort to decipher the human genetic code.
A process in which genetic material is exchanged between pairs of chromosomes during meiosis.
Monozygotic twins who develop from a single zygote that later divides to form two genetically identical individuals.
Twins who are not identical and who result when a mother releases two ova at roughly the same time and each is fertilized by a different sperm.
The longer of the two sex chromosomes; normal females have two X chromosomes, whereas normal males have only one.
The shorter of the two sex chromosomes; normal males have one Y chromosome, whereas females have none.
A chromosomal portrait created by staining chromosomes, photographing them under a high-power microscope, and arranging them into a predetermined pattern.
The genetic endowment that an individual inherits.
The way in which a person's genotype is expressed in observable or measurable characteristics.
The activation of particular genes in particular cells of the body at particular times in life.
single gene-pair inheritance
The genetic mechanism through which a characteristic is influenced by only one pair of genes, one gene from the mother and its partner from the father.
A relatively powerful gene that is expressed phenotypically and masks the effect of a less-powerful recessive gene.
A less powerful gene that is not expressed phenotypically when paired with a dominant gene.
A condition in which a stronger gene fails to mask all the effects of a weaker partner gene; a phenotype results that is similar but not identical to the effect of the stronger gene.
In genetics, an instance in which two different but equally powerful genes produce a phenotype in which both genes are expressed.
An attribute determined by a gene that appears on one of the two types of sex chromosomes, usually the X chromosome.
A deficiency in the blood's ability to clot. It is more common among males than females because it is associated with a sex-linked gene on the X chromosome.
A characteristic influenced by the action of many gene pairs rather than a single pair.
A change in the structure or arrangement of one or more genes that produces a new phenotype.
autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
A category of pervasive developmental disorders that includes what was previously called autism, Asperger syndrome, and related conditions and that involves (1) social and communication problems and (2) restricted interests and repetitive behavior.
Conditions in which a child has too few, too many, or incomplete chromosomes because of errors in the formation of sperm or ova.
A chromosomal abnormality in which the child has inherited an extra 21st chromosome and is, as a result, mentally retarded, also called trisomy 21.
Significantly below-average intellectual functioning with limitations in areas of adaptive behavior such as self-care and social skills, originating before age 18 (previously known as mental retardation).
A sex chromosome abnormality in which females inherit only one X chromosome (XO); they remain small in stature, fail to develop secondary sex characteristics, and may show some mental deficiencies.
A sex chromosome abnormality in which males inherit two or more X chromosomes (XXY or XXXY); these males fail to develop secondary sex characteristics and often show deficiencies on tests of verbal abilities.
fragile X syndrome
A chromosome abnormality in which one arm of the X chromosome is only barely connected to the rest of the chromosome; the most common hereditary cause of mental retardation.
copy number variations
Instances in which a person receives too many or too few copies of a stretch of DNA; like gene mutations, they can either be inherited from a parent or arise spontaneously and can contribute to diseases and disorders.
A service designed to inform people about genetic conditions they or their unborn children are at risk of inheriting.
A genetic blood disease in which red blood cells assume an unusual sickle shape and become inefficient at distributing oxygen throughout the body.
In genetics, individuals who possess a recessive gene associated with a disease and who, although they do not have the disease, can transmit the gene for it to offspring.
A genetic disease caused by a single, dominant gene that strikes in middle age to produce a deterioration of physical and mental abilities and premature death.
A genetic disease in which the child is unable to metabolize phenylalanine; if left untreated, it soon causes hyperactivity and mental retardation.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A disorder characterized by attentional difficulties, or overactive and impulsive behavior, or both.
Method of examining physical organs by scanning them with sound waves - for example, scanning the womb and thereby producing a visual outline of the fetus to detect gross abnormalities.
A method of extracting amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman so that fetal body cells within the fluid can be tested for chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic defects.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
An alternative to amniocentesis in which a catheter is inserted through the cervix to withdraw fetal cells from the chorion for prenatal testing to detect genetic defects.
maternal blood sampling
A noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis involving testing for substances in maternal blood; more recently, analysis of fetal cells that have slipped through the placenta into the mother's blood.
preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a mother's eggs are fertilized in the laboratory using in vitro fertilization techniques, DNA tests are conducted on the first cells that result from mitosis of each fertilized egg, and only eggs that do not have chromosome abnormalities or genes associated with disorders are implanted in the uterus.
The scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences among individuals are responsible for differences among them in traits such as intelligence and personality.
The amount of variability in a population on some trait dimension that is attributable to genetic differences among those individuals.
Method of studying genetic and environmental influence in which the similarity of identical twins is compared to that of (less genetically similar) fraternal twins, often in studies involving both twins reared together and twins reared apart.
The physical environment of the womb during the 9 months of pregnancy.
Method of studying genetic and environmental influence that involves determining whether adopted children are more similar to their biological parents (whose genes they share) or adoptive parents (who shaped their environment).
Method of studying genetic and environmental influence that examines similarities in traits between pairs of siblings who have different degrees of genetic similarity - for example, identical twins, full biological siblings, half siblings, and unrelated stepsiblings who live together in stepfamilies.
The percentage of cases in which a particular attribute is present for both members of a pair of people (for example, twins) if it is present for one member.
shared environmental influences
Experiences that individuals living in the same home environment share and that work to make them similar.
nonshared environmental influences
Experiences unique to the individual that are not shared by other members of the family and that tend to make members of the same family different.
The analysis of particular genes and their effects, including the identification of specific genes that influence particular traits and the comparison of animals or humans who have these specific genes and those who do not.
A genetically based pattern of tendencies to respond in predictable ways; building blocks of personality.
A serious form of mental illness characterized by disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and interpersonal behavior.
The phenomenon in which the effects of people's genes depend on the kind of environment they experience and in which the effects of the environment depend on their genetic endowment.
A systematic interrelationship between and individual's genes and that individual's environment; ways in which genes influence the kind of home environment provided by parents (passive gene-environment correlation), and the types of experiences the individual seeks (active gene-environment correlation).
passive gene-environment correlation
Phenomenon in which, because parents provide children with both their genes and a home environment compatible with those genes, the home environments to which children are exposed are correlated with (and typically reinforce) their genotypes.
evocative gene-environment correlation
Phenomenon in which children's genotypes evoke certain kinds of reactions from other people so that their genetic makeup and experiences are correlated.
active gene-environment correlation
Phenomenon in which children's genotypes influence the kinds of environments they seek out and therefore experience.
The process through which nature and nurture, genes and environment, jointly bring forth development in ways that are difficult to predict at the outset.
Ways in which environmental influences alter the expression of genes (whether genes are turned on or off) and therefore the influence of genes on traits.
Interventions that involve substituting normal genes for the genes associated with a disease of disorder; otherwise altering a person's genetic makeup.
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