20 terms

Chapter 10: Structure and Function of DNA

STUDY
PLAY
adenine (A)
nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine (DNA) and uracil (RNA)
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
codon
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
cytosine (C)
nitrogenous base that pairs up with guanine
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
DNA polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
double helix
Shape of DNA
genetic code
Collection of codons of mRNA, each of which directs the incorporation of a particular amino acid into a protein during protein synthesis
guanine (G)
nitrogenous base that pairs with cytosine
nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA molecules that make ribosomes
RNA polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
sugar-phosphate backbone
The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached
thymine (T)
nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
transfer RNA (tRNA)
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
uracil (U)
RNA nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell