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Praxis ESOL Content
Terms in this set (83)
the study of the sound system of a language. The sound system of a language is composed of a finite number of phonemes
the basic units of sound
when 2 consonants represent a single phoneme (sound)
what, when, photo, tough
when 2 vowels represent a single phoneme
beet, beat, book, fool
the process whereby a phoneme that occurs in complementary distribution results in 2 similar but different phonemes
sam & ham || cat & sat
the phoneme is the same, except that in sam & ham, the phoneme is nasalized
when the vowel sound becomes nasalized. [~] is used to identify the nasal sounds
the vowels are usually pronounced with oral sound
when a vowel sound precedes a nasal sound, the vowel is nasalized
a puff of air after a consonant. This only occurs when the phoneme is at the beginning of the word/syllable.
pork - /ph/ top - /t h/ karate - /k h/
When the phoneme /s/ occurs before the phoneme /p/, the /p/ is not aspirated
spark (not aspirated) vs park (aspirated)
The /k/ phoneme can be represented by the graphemes ch, c, & k
court, chrome, kangaroo (aspirated)
scoot, school, skate (not aspirated)
the study of the structure of words and word formation
units of meaning that make up words. English words have a minimum of 1 morphemes or as many as 5
a morpheme with meaning by itself. Represents a word: "car"
a morpheme attached to words, root words, or another morpheme: Careful predetermined
prefixes (morphemes placed before the root word) and suffixes (morphemes placed after the root word). Affixes in English come from Latin and Greek, a commonality with other Indo-European languages (Spanish, French, German).
words that are spelled and pronounced similarly in 2 languages
the units of meaning that can be attached to a word or root word. These morphemes can change the syntactic classification of the word.
Ex: Adding "ly" to subconscious makes it an adverb.
sub - prefix morpheme
consci - root word
ous - adj morpheme
ly - adverb morpheme
these do not change the syntactic classification of the attached word and follow derivational morphemes. They are also called inflectional endings because they occur at the end of the word. These are tenses, superlatives, and comparatives.
great - adjective
er - inflectional morphemes
the part of speech of a word (noun, verb, adj, adv, prep, article)
the organization or sequence of words in a sentence. English has specific syntax rules to account for word order, sequence of morphemes, and grammatical and logical relations of words within sentences.
Noun phrase - a subject or object with multiple variations following specific syntax rules.
contain a verb by itself or a have a verb followed by any other constituent like a noun phrase or a prep phrase
can take objects (direct or indirect)
Intransitive verb (linking verb)
link the subject with a predicate adjective, predicate normative, or a complement. All linking verbs, verbs of motion, and "to be" verbs are intransitive, they do not take objects.
describes the subject
restates the subject
basic sentence patterns
the vocabulary of the language. Versatile and changeable. Words change meaning with context and throughout time. Used to describe our culture and lifestyle.
the component of language that conveys the meaning system.
the literal meaning of words and ideas
the implied meaning of words and ideas
expressions that traditionally use connotative meaning to communicate information.
the ability of speakers to combine sounds into words, words into sentences, and larger unit cohesively to achieve oral or written communication.
English speakers generally present the thesis of an argument and provide supporting details with minimal deviation from the main topic.
present the thesis and supporting details but embellish the content in a way that leads away from the main topic.
the role of context in the production and interpretation of communication. They describe the hidden rules of communication shared by native speakers. Often speakers need a wider range of vocabulary and linguistic sophistication for successful pragmatic communication. Ex: Euphemism, Paraphrasing
/m/ mother /b/ boy /p/ past
tongue between the teeth
/th/ voiceless phoneme "thanks"
/ð/ - voiced phoneme "theme"
when the tongue touches the back of the upper teeth and gum area
tip do no some zoo low
when sounds are produced on the hard palate located in the roof of the mouth
shower chart Cajun seizure
produce sounds on the soft palate at the roof of the mouth
gate car when water sing
sounds produced behind the uvula (thing hanging in the back of throat) and before the vocal folds (glottis)
produce sounds through the nasal passage by creating vibration there
/m/ /n/ /y/
produced when air from the lungs goes through the vocal tract and nose
most sounds in English are oral. They are produced when the soft palate, velum, is raised and stopping access through the nose and forcing the air to go through the mouth.
produced when the velum is lowered, allowing air to escape through the nasal cavity.
/m/ /n/ /y/ - these are the only 3 nasal sounds in English. When a vowel is sounded after a nasal sound, the vowel is also nasal: new
created when the airstream from the lungs moves through the windpipe in the openings of the vocal folds (glottis),vibrating them.
created similarly to voiced sounds except that the air goes above the vocal folds, not engaging them.
Whispering disengages the glottis
Place of articulation
bilabial, labiodentals, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar
when the air going through the vocal tract stops or dies out
when the air from the lungs is partially obstructed, creating friction or a hissing sound
when the air from the lungs is stopped in the vocal tract and is slowly released. A combination of stop and fricative sounds.
when the airstream finds some degree of obstruction inside the vocal cavity that does not bring to a close the sound nor creates friction; instead, the flow of air passes through the sides of the vocal cavity.
tip of tongue (apex) touches the alveolar ridge (apico-alveolar)
tip of tongue (apex) forms an arch that touches the alveolar ridge producing a movement toward the back (apio-alveolar)
when the airstream passes through the vocal tract with little of no obstruction. Occurs before or after a vowel, gliding toward or away from vowel sounds, semivowels. They are not always voiced and do not form the crest, or stress, or the syllable.
features of an oral language beyond phoneme
a language feature where speakers use different pitch at the syllable level to change the meaning of words
Thai, Chinese, Vietnamese, etc.
the patter of pitch at the sentence and word levels, it can change meanings or alter communication at word, phrase, or sentence level.
a feature of English and other intonation language. Creates difference between a question, reply, and what is highlighted content.
words with identical spelling but with alternate pronunciation. Use stress (at the phonetic level) to change meaning and often the syntactic classification.
Primary stress and secondary stress do not change the meaning of the word but rather are a guide for pronunciation. English words have a tendency to stress at the beginning or middle of a word.
have high semantic value (nouns, adj, verbs, adv.)
required to comply with grammatical conventions (articles, preps, auxileries, conjunctions, pronouns)
Compound Words Stress- In compound words, the first word is stressed: BUTTERfly BIRDhouse BOOKstore
Compound nouns are the same: COMPUTER programmer FRENCH fries
International Phonetic Alphabet
used to describe languages throughout the world
American Phonetic Alphabet
exclusively for American English sounds
the ability of second language learners to apply the rules and use language appropriately.
ability to switch from register based on context and purpose of communication
the application of grammar rules for the language, that is, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
the ability to achieve cohesion and coherence in communication
the use of techniques of communication to acieve the communicative purpose and to avoid breakdowns in communication
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
the type of proficiency that ELLs need to communicate in person and highly contextualized situations
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALS)
the higher level of linguistic development required to understand instruction in de-contextualized situations.
Behaviorist Theory or Second Language Acquisition - Second language learning is a process of habit formation through the use of stimulus, response, and reinforcement. Audio-lingual method
using imitation, repetition, and reinforcement to teach a second language. Promotes the use of memorization of dialogues and pattern drills as grammar foundations. Errors are corrected immediately and corrections are made for reinforcement. Used in 1950s-60s, ended use in 1970s
Innatist Theory or Second Language Acquisition - Believe that children are born with the ability to learn languages (innate mechanism).Children construct the grammar of their native language through hypothesis testing. Children develop the rules of the language with minimal support from parents. The role of adults is in building the lexicon of the language and teaching rules to develop sociolinguistic competence. When using strategies in L2 that resemble L1 acquisition, promotes the ability to learn L2. Teachers should use inductive teaching and promote language development through fun and interactive activities that lead to self-discovery.
Creative construction theory
The idea that 2nd language learners follow similar strategies and make the same kinds of errors as native speakers. Acquisition is meaningful and natural language interaction with no conscious efforts on grammar. It's driven by meaning and is low-anxiety. Informal. Learning is formal. restrictive. teacher-centered.
language is acquired by understanding input that contains linguistic structures that are beyond the current level of linguistic competence.
The monitor hypothesis
when learners are exposed to formal language instruction they develop an internal mechanism to assess language and make the necessary connections. This is a good way to guide students to internalize the rules until they are subconscious.
Affective filter hypothesis
students perform better when they are motivated and relaxed. Create a low-anxiety environment where students feel secure. Students can be silent or communicate when ready.
Natural order hypothesis
ELLs require English structures in a predictable sequence with small variations depending on the influence of L1. Avoid teaching English following a grammatical sequence. Instead, develop rich linguistic activities and use a variety of structures
Interactionists Theory of Second Language Acquisition - Conceptualize the existence of the LAD (language acquisition device) but believe that the role of parents/caregivers is narrow, that they provide conversational scaffolding: parents/ caregivers repeat and model words and phrases, prompting questions, and listening. This is the prevailing and current theory. Teachers should use nonverbal communication, drawings, and modified speech and encourage communicating with native speakers and in real-life situations. A strong cognitive and academic development in L1 helps acquisition of L2. Academic skills and content knowledge, literacy development, and metacognitive strategies transfer to L2 (called the common underlying proficiency).
a transitional construction students develop in the process of mastering L2
errors caused by the interference of L1 over the structures of L2
Cross-linguistic language transfer
when the structures of L1 help in the acquisition of L2 (same alphabet)
the alternating use of L2 and L1 in communication
Intrasentenial - within a sentence
Intersentenial - across sentences
Stages of Second Language Development - Preproduction/silent stage, Early speech production, Speech emergence, Intermediate fluency, Advanced stage
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