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Innate Immunity- Chapter 16
Terms in this set (47)
Differentiate innate and adaptive immunity.
~ Innate immunity: Defenses against any pathogen. Born with it, Non-specific.
~ Adaptive immunity: Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen. Developed after birth, very specific.
Define Toll-like receptors.
Innate immune response activated by protein receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLR) on PM of defensive cells of the host. The (TLRs) found on defensive cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) attach to various components found on the pathogen called Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
PAMPs Examples: LPS of gram negatives, flagellin protein, peptidoglycan of gram positive, DNA, RNA of bacteria and viruses and fungi.
TLRs induce macrophages/ dendritic cells to produce cytokines that regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses.
Which defense system, innate or adaptive immunity, prevents entry of microbes into the body?
What relationship do Toll-like receptors have to pathogen-associated molecular patterns?
Recognize and detect presence, recognition factor.
Describe the role of the skin and mucous membranes in innate immunity.
- Epithelium is the thin outer covering of mucous membranes.
1) Is tightly packed to prevent entry of pathogens.
2) Is not keratinized and it continually sheds, carrying away pathogens.
3) Produces mucus which traps pathogens.
4) It can produce chemicals like lysozyme (eyes and saliva) and other chemicals that create an acidic pH.
Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list five examples of each.
~ Physical factors:
1) Skin: Epidermis consists of tightly packed cells with
Keratin, a protective protein
2) Mucous membranes: Line the GI, respiratory and genitourinary tracts
3)Secrete Mucus (produced by goblet cells): traps microbes
5) Lacrimal apparatus: washes eye
6) Saliva: washes microbes off
7) Urine: flows out
8) Vaginal secretions: flow out
9) Earwax: protects ear drum
~ Chemical Factors Sebum: oily substance made from sebaceous glands of the skin
1) Fungistatic fatty acid in sebum
2) Low pH (3-5) of skin
3) Lysozyme (cleave cell wall of bacteria) in perspiration, tears, saliva, and urine
4) Low pH (1.2-3.0) of gastric juice
5) Low pH (3-5) of vaginal secretions
Describe the role of normal microbiota in innate immunity.
Good flora competes with potential pathogens. They consume nutrients, create an unfavorable environment for pathogens, help stimulate WBC's, provide vitamins (K and B's).
Define Innate immunity.
Defenses against any pathogen, non specific.
Define Adaptive immunity.
Immunity or resistance to a specific pathogen.
Distinguish microbial antagonism from commensalism.
~ Microbial antagonism/competitive exclusion: Normal microbiota compete with pathogens or alter the environment.
~ Commensal microbiota: One organism (microbe) benefits and the other (host) is unharmed.
- May be opportunistic pathogens.
Classify leukocytes, and describe the roles of granulocytes and monocytes.
~ White blood cells: Destroy target cells by perforins proteins that cause cytolysis and granzymes that cause target cells to undergo apoptosis.
~ Granulocytes: a type of WBC (can be seen when stained) active in initial stage of infection, allergy responses, produce toxins against parasites.
~ Monocyte: type of WBCn (phagocytosis when they mature into macrophages) precurser of a macrophage.
Define differential white blood cell count.
The proportions of the different types of white cells in the blood, usually split into the different types of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
Differentiate the lymphatic and blood circulatory systems.
The main function of blood is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body, and carry away carbon dioxide and cellular waste (mostly lactic acid and calcium salts). Blood handles the day-to-day transport of living body materials.
The lymphatic system, however, is meant to handle dangerous toxins and pathogens; a separate and parallel system to the circulatory system to transport materials too hazardous to be carried around in the bloodstream.
Compare the structures and function of monocytes and neutrophils.
~ Monocyte= precurser to macrophage, swelling of lymph nodes during infection.
~ Neutrophil=highly phagocytic and motile, active in intial stage of infection, destroy foriegn MO's and particles
Describe the six different types of white blood cells, and name a function for each type.
~ Granulocytes: (contain granules in cytoplasm)
2) basophils-production of histamine
3) Eoisinophils-production of toxic proteins against certain parasites; some phagocytosis
~ Aganulocytes: (lack granules)
4) monocytes- phagocytosis (precuser of macrophage)
5) dendrite cells- phagocytosis and initiation of immune response
6) lymphocytes- destroy target cells by cytolysis and apoptosis. Example: t and B cells.
What is the function of lymph nodes?
Are major sites of B, T, and other immune cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Lymph nodes do not deal with toxicity, which is primarily dealt with by the liver and kidneys.
Define phagocyte and phagocytosis.
~ Phagocyte= a cell capable of engulfing particles that are harmful to the body.
~ Phagocytosis= ingestion of particles by eukaryotic cells.
Describe the process of phagocytosis, and include the stages of adherence and ingestion.
Chemotaxis allows phagocytes to migrate to infection sites and destroy invading bacteria. Phagocytosis is the second line of defense. Phagocytes can also stimulate the T and B cells.
1) Chemotaxis and Adherence of the phagocyte to microbe.
2) Ingestion of microbe by phagocyte.
3) Formation of phagosome (phagocytic vesicle)
4) Fusion of phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome.
5) Digestion of ingested microbes by enzymes in the phagolysosome.
6) Formation of the residual body containing indigestible material.
7) Discharge of waste materials.
(Figure 16.7, pg. 461)
Identify six mechanisms of avoiding destruction by phagocytosis.
1) Inhibit adherence: M protein, capsules
2) Kill phagocytes: Leukocidins
3) Lyse phagocytes: Membrane attack complex
4) Escape phagosome
5) Prevent phagosome -lysosome fusion
6) Survive in phagolysosome
What do fixed and wandering macrophages do?
~ Fixed macrophages: resident in certain tissues and organs. Ex: liver, lungs, nervous system, spleen, lymph nodes, red bone marrow.
~ Wandering macrophages: roam tissues and gather at sites of infection or inflamation.
How does Streptococcus pneumoniae avoid destruction by phagocytes?
Inhibit adherence: M protein, capsules
How does Staphylococcus aureus avoid destruction by phagocytes?
Kill phagocytes: Leukocidins
How does Listeria monocytogenes avoid destruction by phagocytes?
Lyse phagocytes: Membrane attack complex
How does Mycobacterium tuberculosis avoid destruction by phagocytes?
Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion
How does Rickettsia avoid destruction by phagocytes?
How does Coxiella burnettii avoid destruction by phagocytes?
Survive in phagolysosome
List the stages of inflammation.
5) loss of function
(a.) damage to otherwise healthy tissue- in this case skin (b.)vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
(c.) phagocyte migration and phagocytosis of bacteria and cellular debris by macrophages and neutrophils. Macrophages develop from monocytes
(d.)the repair of damage tissue
Describe the roles of vasodilation, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes in inflammation.
~ Vasodilation: dilation of clood vessels to increase blood flow to the damaged area and is responsible for the redness associated with inflammation
~ Kinins: another group of substances that cause vasodialation and increased permeability of blood vessels
~ Prostaglandins: substances released by damaged cells intensify the effects of histamine and kinins and help phagocytes move through the capillary walls
~ Leukotrienes: produced by mast cells that cause increased permeability of blood vessels and help attach phagocytes to pathogens
Describe phagocyte migration.
W/I an hour of inflamation the phagocytes migrate to that cite. the sticking process in responce to local cytokines is called migration. the cytokines alter cellular adhesion molecules on cell linning blood vessels, causing phagocytes to stick to site of inflammation.
Describe the cause and effects of fever.
~ Cause: infection from bacteria and their toxins, or viruses. Gram negative endotoxin cause phagocyte to release interleukin-1
~ Effects: body increases rate of metabolism and shivering which raises temperature vasodilation and sweating: body temperature falls (crisis)
What purposes does inflammation serve?
Acute inflammation is an organism's response a harmful stimulus, which could be a physical injury, an allergic reaction, or another cause.
The inflammation itself is due to increased blood flow to the area, which brings with it plasma proteins (like fibrinogen, which helps clot a wound) and leukocytes (white blood cells, which attempt to remove the stimulus).
What causes the redness, swelling, and pain associated with inflammation?
1) Redness: vasodilation
2) Pain: increase permeabillity and causes edema.
3) Swelling: plasma proteins and leukocytes
What is margination?
Is the process in which free-flowing leukocytes exit the central blood stream, and initiate leukocyte and endothelial cell interactions by close mechanical contact.
Why does a chill indicate that a fever is about to occur?
Body increases rate of metabolism and shivering which raises temperature.
What is complement?
A group of serum proteins involved in phagocytosis and lysis of bacteria. the complement system is a defensive system consisting of over 30 proteins produced by the liver and found circulating in blood serum and within tissues throughout the body.
Summarize the major outcomes of complement activation.
Complement proteins activate each other to destroy invading MO's.
- Opsonization, or immune adherence: enhanced phagocytosis
- Membrane attack complex: cytolysis
- Attract phagocytes
Small proteins released from virally infected cells
that bind to near-by non-infected cells.
- Interferons are species and tissue specific in the
host but not virus specific.
- Three types: alpha (α) and beta (β) from WBC's
and gamma (γ) from activated T-cells.
Compare and contrast the actions of IFN-α and IFN-β with IFN-γ.
- IFN-α and IFN-β: cause cells to produce antiviral
proteins that inhibit viral replication
- IFN-γ: causes neutrophils and macrophages
to phagocytize bacteria.
Describe the role of iron-binding proteins in innate immunity.
Transferrin are iron building proteins transport and store iron and deprive most pathogens of the available iron.
Describe the role of antimicrobial peptides in innate immunity.
(AMP's) inhibit cell wall synthesis; from pores in plasma membranes, resulting in lysis, and destroy DNA and RNA. AMP's are produced by nearly all plants and animals and bacterial resistance to AMP's has not yet been seen.
What is interferon?
It is a proteins made by virus infected cells to stop spread of infection. (nosey neighbors)
What does the ciliary escalator movement do?
Picks up MO from the lower respiratory to move up through the respiratory system to be excreted by coughing or sneezing.
What are the 5 different first line of defense of physical barriers?
1) Intact Skin
2) Mucous Membranes
3) Lacrimal Apparatus
5) Flow of Urine
What are the 4 different first line of defense of chemical barriers?
4) pH of gastric juices
What comes under the second line of defense?
Opsonization, Phagocytosis, inflammation, fever, Complement (Interferon).
What are the first phagocyte to come to the site of infection?
What is opsonization?
Process of coating a microbe with a coding protein. (Bacteria are targeted for destruction by an immune cell known as a phagocyte . The process of opsonization is a means of identifying the invading particle to the phagocyte.) Leads to phagocytosis.
What is a treatment for hemolytic disease?
What is the course of the acute infection?
what is the first signal for t cells?
What is Virchow's classic triad in sepsis?
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