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Nat Turner

Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.

Short-staple cotton

Cotton that replaced other crops in the south because it was more resilient than other crops and could grow nearly anywhere; Dominated southern plantations for decades in the 19th century, contributed to slavery dependence

cotton gin

machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development; invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

Hinton R. Helper

Wrote The Impending Crisis of the South, a book about slavery. He said the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. He was captured and killed by Southerners

American Colonization Society

An abolitionist society formed in 1817 which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independence.

George Fitzhugh

He wrote "Sociology for the South," a book that supported slavery; he defended slavery as a natural part of hierarchical society

Cassius M. Clay

a very influential newspaper editor, he wrote how he felt about slavery (abolitionist) in the news paper. He was attacked often and left to go to the North for Safety

Second Seminole War

(1835-1842) Conflicts between Seminoles and the US. The Seminoles tried to retain their land in Florida. It was the most expensive Indian War fought by the United States. Native Americans were eventually forced to move West

David walker

He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.

Harriet tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

african methodist episcopal church

Richard Allen founded this first independent black Protestant run church in 1816 in the US. It supported abolition and founded educational institutions for free blacks

George Fitzhugh

was a social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that "the Negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. Fitzhugh decried capitalism as spawning a "war of the rich with the poor, and the poor with one another" - rendering free blacks "far outstripped or outwitted in the chase of free competition." Slavery, he contended, ensured that blacks would be economically secure and morally civilized. basically he said that slaves in the south were better off than "freed servants" in the north.

Frederick douglas

Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.

Harriet beecher stowe

Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.

Denmark Vesey

American insurrectionist. A freed slave in South Carolina, he was implicated in the planning of a large uprising of slaves and was hanged. The event led to more stringent slave codes in many Southern states.

Reverend Richard

Organized the African Methodist Episcopal.

Gabriel prosser

in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed.

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