Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Essential AA (9)

Lys, Thr, Trp, Met, Ile, Leu, Val, Phe, His, Arg*

Non-Essential (11)

Ser, Gly, Cys, Ala, Asp, Asn, Arg, Glu, Gln, Pro (from Glucose); Tyr (from Phe)

Transamination RXNs (3)

Pyruvate to Alanine; a-KG to Glu; OAA to Asp; require PLP

Gly & Ser Synthesis

Phosphoglycerate from glycolysis to Serine / Gly

Cys Synthesis

Met donates S and Serine donates N & C

Tyr Synthesis

Phe to Tyr; BH4 cofactor & enzyme PAH; PKU disease = no PAH enzyme activity = build up of Phe in blood & Phenolic Pyruvate

Asn Synthesis

Derivative of Asp; Gln donates amide group

Synthesis of Glu, Gln, Pro, Arg

Formed from a-KG; Glu is precursor

Glucogenic Essential

Val, Thr, Met, His; can produce pyruvate or intermediates of the TCA cycle

Glucogenic Non-Essential

Ala, Arg, Asn, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gln, Gly, Pro, Ser

Glucogenic & Ketogenic (5)

Ile, Thr, & Phenolic (Phe, Trp, Tyr); produce acetyl CoA or ketone bodies and cannot produce OAA which is necessary for gluconeogenesis

Ketogenic (2)

Lys, Leu

Converted to Acetoacetate

Leu, Lys, Phe, Trp, Tyr

Converted to Acetyl CoA

Ile, Thr

Converted to Pyruvate

Ala, Cys, Gly, Ser, Thr, Trp

Converted to Glu then aKG

Gln, Pro, His, Arg

Converted to Succinyl CoA

Ile, Met, Thr, Val

Converted to Fumarate

Phe & Tyr

Converted to OAA

Asn, Asp


Val, Ile, Leu; greatest potential for E use in muscle; make up 25% of protein; Leu increases insulin; Ile forms hemoglobin; Val

BCAA Degradation Step 1

Transamination = a-KG converts (Muscle)

BCAA Degradation Step 2

a-Keto groups undergo oxidative decarboxylation by a-keto acid dehydrogenase (Liver)

Val Degradation Products

FADH2, NADH, Gluconeogenic

Ile Degradation Products

NADH, both Gluco & Keto




maple syrup disease; a-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme is defective in liver so you get a lot of build up of Glutamate & Glutamine

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording