77 terms

Chick Embryology

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shell
protects the growing embryo, provides calcium, and allows for oxygen to pass into the shell and carbon dioxide to escape
shell membrane
2 membranes surround the yolk and albumen and provide protection against bacteria invasion as well as water retention
air cell
an air space between the 2 shell membranes usually at the larger end of the egg, enlarges as the egg matures, formed when the cooling egg pulls the 2 membranes apart
chalazae
2 white cords that attach to each end of the yolk to support and keep the yolk centered in the albumen, serves as a rotating axis to keep the germ cell on the top side of the yolk
germinal disc
found in every egg, embryo development will take place here if the egg is fertilized
albumen
the liquid commonly called egg white, cushions the egg and provides water and protein during development
first organ system to appear
nervous system
second organ system to appear
blood & circulatory system
third organ system to appear
skeletal & muscular system
fourth organ system to appear
digestive system
How many hours does it take for a hen to form an egg?
24 hours
parthenogenesis
inherited trait that causes the development of infertile eggs
% of parthenogenesis eggs that develop, most common with which species
1%, most common in turkeys
blastoderm
spreads over the yolk and differentiates into the ectoderm and entoderm layers, formed with fertilization of a chicken eggs takes place
ectoderm
forms the skin, feathers, beak, claws, nervous system, lens, and retina of the eye, and the lining of the mouth and vent, 1st
entoderm
forms linings of digestive and respiratory and secretory organs, 2nd
mesoderm
forms the bones, muscles, blood, reproductive, and excretory organs, 3rd
infundibulum
funnel of the oviduct of the hen where the sperm will fertilize the egg
15 min
how long the yolk will stay in the funnel of the reproductive tract
30 min
within this amount of time, another yolk will be released by the ovary of the hen to begin another egg cycle
chorion
membrane that surrounds the yolk sac and amnion during chick development
amnion
transparent sac full of colorless liquid that surrounds the embryo, serves as a cushion and provides protection for the developing embryo
allantois
sac connected to the abdomen of the developing chick that makes respiration possible, stores excretions, absorbs albumen for food, gets calcium from the shell for the structural needs for the embryo
16 hours
first sign of resemblance to a chick embryo
18 hours
appearance of alimentary tract
20 hours
appearance of vertebral tract
21 hours
beginning of formation of nervous system
22 hours
beginning of formation of the head
23 hours
appearance of blood islands
24 hours
beginning of formation of the eye
25 hours
beginning of formation of the heart
35 hours
beginning of the formation of the ear
42 hours
heart begins to beat
50 hours
beginning of formation of amnion
60 hours
beginning of formation of the nasal structure
62 hours
beginning of formation of the legs
64 hours
beginning of formation of the wings
70 hours
beginning of formation of the allantois
day 4
beginning of formation of the tongue
day 5
beginning of formation of the reproductive organs and differentiation of sex
day 6
beginning of formation of the beak and egg tooth
day 8
beginning of formation of the feathers
day 10
beginning of hardening of the beak
day 13
appearance of scales and claws
day 14
embryo turns its head toward the blunt end of the egg
day 16
scales, claws, and beak become firm and horny
day 17
beak turns toward the air cell
day 19
yolk sac begins to enter the body cavity
day 20
yolk sac is completely drawn into the body cavity; embryo occupies all the space within the egg except the air cell
day 21
chick hatches
hatchability
% of fertilized eggs that hatch
fertility
capacity to reproduce
fertility is affected by
male to female ratio, age of breeding animals, length of time between breedings, management practices
genetics are affected by
inbreeding, crossbreeding, lethal genes, heritable traits
nutrients affected by
rations fed to breeding hens,amount of vitamins and minerals in hen rations
15-18 hours
infertile eggs can be detected after this much time of incubation
75watt
bulb recommended for use in an egg candler
14-16 hours
amount of time the second fertility test can be made
setter incubator
day 1-19 is spent here
hatcher incubator
day 19-21 is spent here
99-100 degrees
temp in the hatcher incubator
brooding
care of young poultry from the time of hatching through 8-10 weeks of age
90-95 degrees
one day old chicks should be at the temp, then lower 5 degrees per week until a temp of 70-75 degrees in reaches
ventilation
provides fresh oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and keeps bedding dry
60-70%
recommended relative humidity
7-10 inches
space that each chick needs
3-5 times
how many times eggs should be turned daily
ducks
28 days
geese
28-32 days
turkeys
28 days
guinea
27 dyas
pheasant
24 days
quail
23-24 days
chicken
21 days
innate behavior
animal is born with the instant to behave in a certain way
dominant
socially aggressive, top of the social hierarchy of the flock
submissive
socially shy, bottom of the social hierarchy of the flock