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Terms in this set (77)
Define and understand absolute strength and relative strength.
Absolute Strength-the total amount of weight that a person can lift or move
Relative Strength- the total amount of weight that a person can lift or move divided by his own body weight
Understand the various ways to assess muscular strength and endurance AND why assessment is valuable.
The one repetition maximum (1 RM)
The 6 to 15 repetition maximum (RM)
Tests utilizing body weight only
Understand the principle of specificity and SAID
Specificity- specific goals when performing physical activity
SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands)- the body will experience unique adaptations based on the stress that is placed on it
Understand progressive overload
A gradual and consistent increase in workload over time to ensure continuous gains are made
How does overtraining occur and what are some of the effects of overtraining?
Progressive training can lead to overtraning.
Individuals experience: unusual fatigue, soreness, and increase risk of injury
The systematic process of varying a training program at regular time intervals to optimize gains in physical performance or other outcome goals
Understand the speed of contraction.
A recommendation that for every second it takes to complete the concentric phase you should allow two seconds f or the eccentric phase of the lift
What is the recommended tempo for resistance training exercises (ratio of concentric to eccentric phase)?
What is the relationship between speed and power?
The faster you move a given load the more power you will create
Understand time under tension.
The total amount of time a muscle or group of muscles is stressed during one set
Understand plyometric training AND circuit training.
Plyometric- Training that involves a rapid pre stretch of the active musculature followed by powerful shortening of the same musculature
Circuit- Training that incorporates various modes of training into one workout
Why is relying solely on self-discipline and willpower for changing behavior not recommended?
Focusing on these things do not provide direction or strategies to increase motivation
What are the ABCs of Behavior Change?
Behavior (Increase activity)
Consequences (Reinforcers or punishers)
Understand antecedents and how they impact physical activity engagement.
Antecedents are events that come before a certain behavior and trigger a person to act in a certain way
Antecedents are used with cues to increase physical activity
What are some examples of antecedents that increase physical activity and examples that increase physical inactivity?
Increase: Packing workout clothes the night before, schedule exercise
Decrease: feeling tired or stressed, the television, the couch
Understand self-talk and how to use self-talk for motivation.
Thinking positive thougts
Understand consequences and how they impact physical activity engagement (reinforcements and punishments).
Consequences- Events that come after the behavior and influence whether a certain behavior is repeated.
Reinforcements- consequences that increase the probability that you will repeat a certain behavior
Punishments- consequences that decrease the probability that you will repeat a certain behavior
What are some examples of reinforcements and punishments for physical activity?
Reinforcements- look better and feel better
Punishments- Time and energy
Understand association and disassociation.
Association-occurs when individuals tune in to what their body is feeling and internal sensations
Disassociation- occurs when a person tunes out sensory feedback
What is intrinsic reward, in regards to physical activity?
Rewards that come from the inside
What are characteristics of an effective reward?
Contingent on performing desired behavior
Moves person toward goal
What is a critical part of behavior change?
Developing greater self awareness
Understand a physical activity contract...what it is and its benefits.
A contract to increase commitment
Understand progression and how to apply it to exercise regimens.
Progression refers to the increase in exercise requirements as fitness improves. Exericse requirements can be increased by changing the frequency, intensity, or duration of exercise.
What are the suggestions for beginners, in regards to intensity?
Do not be overly concerned about intensity
How long might it take a beginner to appreciate the benefits of activity?
What factors indicate a need for progression?
Heart rate and RPE falling below the target zone
If your goal is aerobic fitness, you should gradually progress to what intensity, duration and frequency?
Intensity- 75% to 80%
Duration: at least 30 minuets per session
Frequency- 4 to 5 days per week
If your goal is improving health, you should gradually progress to what intensity, duration and frequency?
Duration- 30 minutes per session
Frequency- 3 days per week
What are the stages of exercise prescription and how long do they typically last?
Initial conditioning, improvement, and maintenance
What are the recommendations and foci of the stages?
Initial Conditioning- moderate intensity, 40 to 60% heart rate reserve, 15 minutes. Focus- Get Moving
Improvement- gradually increased intensity, 50 to 85% heart rate reserve Focus- improve fitness to desired levels
Maintenance- intensity and duration held constant. Focus-long term maintenance of fitness levels
What are the controllable risk factors explained in the textbook?
Smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes
What are the advantages of smoking cessation?
Mortality risks decline
Understand physical activity's role in smoking cessation.
Individuals who increase their physical activity can prevent or minimize weight gain
What is blood pressure?
The force exerted by the blood against the arterial wall
What is considered "normal" blood pressure? Prehypertensive? Hypertensive?
Prehypertensive- 80 to 89 and 120 to 139
Hypertensive- Greater than 90 and greater than 140
How is blood pressure expressed?
Systolic blood pressure over diastolic blood pressure
What are some strategies for reducing blood pressure?
weight reduction, alcohol restriction, sodium restriction, regular aerobic exercise, and medication
What is considered desirable total cholesterol?
Fewer than 200 milligrams per deciliter of blood
What did the results of the Framingham study reveal about the relationship between blood cholesterol reduction and heart attack risk?
For every 1% reduction in total cholesterol a 2% reduction in heart attacks can be expected
What is atherosclerosis?
A disease in which plaque builds up within the arteries
Understand LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol.
Tends to adhere to the walls of damaged arteries and high levels are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risks and is a major factor in the development of clogged arteries
Understand HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol.
Helps to remove plaque from the arterial walls and transport it to the liver where it is metabolized and eliminated
What is the recommended level of HDL cholesterol?
Greater than 60 mg/dL
What lifestyle habits can promote healthy cholesterol levels?
Diet low in cholesterol, saturated and trans fat
Why is physical activity so important in reducing disease risk?
Control blood pressure, diabetes, obesity
What are the adverse conditions associated with overweight and obesity?
Hypertension, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, hyerlipidemia, osteoarthritis, psychological maladjustments, increased risk of some cancers, and shorter life expectancy.
What does research reveal about obesity and its association with physical activity and diet?
Obesity is more associated with inactivity than overeating
What is diabetes mellitus?
A disease in which the body does not produce or respond properly to insulin
Long term elevation of blood glucose can lead to....
Eye disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, impaired circulation, and cardiovascular disease
What are the risk factors of type 2 diabetes?
Obesity, physical inactivity, advancing age, race, and family history
Understand the Uncontrollable risk factors?
Increasing age, heredity, race
What is the relationship between CVD and number of disease risks?
The risk for developing CVD increases if risk factors are present
What is the leading cause of death in the US?
Diseases of the heart
What is the definition of flexibility?
The ability to move a joint and use muscles surrounding that joint through their full range of motion without pain
What are the benefits of flexibility?
Increased physical performance, reduced muscle tension, injury prevention
What impacts flexibility?
Sex and age
What are the types of flexibility training?
Static and ballistic
What is the most frequently used technique for strength?
Understand static stretching, ballistic stretching, dynamic stretching and PNF stretching.
Static- slow stretching until mild discomfort
Ballistic- Faster less controlled stretching to activate the stretch reflex
Dynamic- movement specific to a sport action
What are the recommendations for a flexibility/stretching program (FITT)?
Frequency- 2 to 3 days a week
Time- 10 to 30 seconds with 2 to 4 reps
Type- all major muscle groups
Why are warm-ups advised before stretching?
Warm ups help increase blood flow to working muscles
Define exercise barriers.
Factors that make exercise participation difficult and unattractive
What are examples of exercise barriers?
What are the steps for overcoming exercise barriers?
Put Plan Into Action
Is there such a thing as too much exercise? Explain.
Moderate intensity activities promote....
Postive health outcomes
Vigorous activities promote...
Health and fitness improvements
To improve or maintain health, what are the physical activity recommendations?
150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week or 5 days a week for 30 minutes
What are the recommendations for additional health benefits?
Increasing moderate intensity activites to 5 hours a week or increasing vigorous intensity activity to 2 hours and 30 mintues per week
Does meeting minimum recommendations for health promote substantial weight loss?
To improve cardiovascular fitness, what are the physical activity recommendations?
Frequency- 3 to 5 days
Intensity- vigorous or to high heart rate point
Time- 20 to 60 minutes per exercise bout
What are the recommendations/suggestions for weight loss?
Change eating habits and increasing physical activity levels to 45 to 90 minutes a day
What is a lapse in an active lifestyle?
Missing exercise days
What are strategies for preventing relapse into an inactive lifestyle?
Remembering personal benefits
Find creative enjoyable activities
Develop iSmarter goals
Apply problem solving skills
Develop exercerise contract
What are examples of high risk situations that may disrupt an exercise routine?
Injury, unforeseen events
Why should we have a plan of action for dealing with potential situations that challenge us to maintain an active lifestyle?
Prevents lapses, better to deal with challenging situation
This set is often in folders with...
ACE Group Fitness Instructor (Chapter 1)
ACE GFI-Chapter 2 Review
Kine 205 CSUSB Exam 1
ACE Group Fitness Instructor (Chapter 2)
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