60 terms

The Heritage of the World Chapter 34 (Supplement)

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Terms in this set (...)

decolonization
the achievement of political self-determination for former colonies, usually through national independence
globalization
the term used to describe the increasing economic and cultural interdependence of societies around the world
clash of civilizations
the political theory, most often identified with Harvard politcal scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that contends that conflict between the world's religio-cultural traditions or "civilizations" increasingly dominates world affairs
liberation theology
the effort by certain Roman Catholic theologians to combine Marxism with traditional Christian concern for the poor
Cuba
the country with corrupt government that was ruled by Batista and then Castro
Batista
the Cuban dictator suported by the United States
Castro
the Cuban communist dictator who led a revolution and untertook the most extensiv epolitical, economic, and social reconstruction in recent Latin American histroy
Che Guevara
Castro's cost associate who assisted him in the Cubvolution
Chile
the country which was the most enduring model of pariamentary democracy in Latin America until it elected a Marxist president and then was governed by a military dictatorship
Allende
the Marxist president of Chile who was eventually overthrown and killed
Pinochet
the gerneral who governed Chile during the military junta
Nicaragua
the coutnry where the Sandinistas overthrew the corrupt dictatorship
Sandinistas
the Marxist guerilla force that overthrew the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua in 1979
Argentina
the country whose army revolted against the Peron dictatorship and established military rule, but later became a democracy
Peron
the Argentine dictator who went into exile
Mexico
the country that experienced an oil boom, rebellions, and corruption in the PRI
PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional)
the party who controlled Mexico during the twentieth century
NAFTA
the agreement which created a vast free-trade area including Mexico, Canada, and the United States
Venezuela
the country which elected the liberal Chavez
Hugo Chavez
the liberal Venezuelan leader
Nigeria
the African country that was led by a military government
South Africa
the country which was governed under the racist plicy of apartheid
apartheid
"apartness"; the term referring to racist policies enforced by the white-domianted regime that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1992
de Clerk
the South African president who released Mandela and ended apartheid
African National Congress
the main anti-apartheid organization
Mandela
the South African man who was awarded a Nobel preace prize and became president of South Africa
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
the quasi-judicial body that investiagated apartheid-era human rights abuses; emphasized disclosure over punishment, and often offered amnesty in exchange for testimony
Congo
the unstable country ruled by the corrupt Mobutu and temporarily renamed Zaire
Mobutu
the leader of the Congo who was backed by the U.S. CIA
Kabila
the leader who took power in the Congo during Mobutu's failing health
Rwandan genocide
the event which resulted in the deaths of 800 thousand African people in 1994
HIV/ AIDS
the collection of symptoms and infections resulting from specific damage to the immune system; the late stage leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors
Iranian (Islamic) Revolution
the revolution in which the Shi'ites and secularists overthrew the shah, an Islamic republican constitution was created, and Khomeini took power
Khomeini
the Shi'ite religious leader who took power of Iran during the Islamic Revolution
Taliban
the rigorist Muslims who had control of Afghanistan by 1998
Al Qaeda
the groups of Muslim terrorists who set up training camps in Afghanistan and attacked the United States in 2001
Nehru
the first prime minister of India, who developed India's famous theory of political neutrality vis-a-vis world alignments
Indira Gandhi
the daughter of Nehru who became prime minister of India
Jinnah
the first president of Pakistan, who oversaw the creation of a Muslim state
Bhutto
the prime minister of India who was the first female leder of a major Islamic state in the twentieth century
Wahhabism
the rigorist, puritanical form of Islam which controlled the Saudi educational system during the twenieth century
Balfour Declaration
the British declaration which supported establishment of a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine
intifidahs
literally, "shaking"; uprisings by the Palestinians against Israeli occupation
occupied territories
the lands occupied by Israel as a result of wars with its Arab neighbors in 1948-1948, 1967, and 1973
Six Day War
the war in which Israel occupied the Sinai
1967
the year of the "Six Day War," when Israel occupied the Sinai
Yom Kippur War
the war in which the Egyptains and Syrians staged a suprise attack on Israel
1973
the year of the Yom Kippur War
Sadat
the presdent of Egypt who met with Begin and Carter for the Camp David Accords
Begin
the Israeli prime minister who met with Sadat and Carter for the Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
the agreement reached by Egypt (Sadat) and Israel (Begin), witht he mediation of the United States (Carter)
Oslo Agreement
the peace agreement which raised hopes for a negotiated settlement and the creation of an independent Palestinian state longside Israel, but has seen little progress
Palestinian Authority
the government created by the Oslo AGreement which grew more corrupt under the leadership of ARafat
Arafat
the leaer of the corrupt Palestinan Authority
Abbas
the Palestinian leader elected in 2005
Muslim fundamentalism (Islamist reformism)
the Islamic revival movement which violently opposes the West
Osama bin Laden
the Saudi millionaire who founded and led al-Qaeda
Ba'ath party
the dominant party in Iraw, which brough Saddam Hussein to his tyrranical reign
Saddam Hussein
the tyrranical leader of Iraq aho invaded and occupied Kuwait
Iraq War
the war in which Britain and the United States invaded Iraw and overthrew Hussein's government