24 terms

Chapter 11:How Genes are Controlled

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activators
Molecules that increase Enzyme Activity
adult stem cells
Cells present in adult tissues that generate replacements for nondividing differentiated cells
alternative RNA splicing
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
cellular differentiation
The process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron.
complementary DNA (cDNA)
two strands of DNA created through reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase that combine to make a double stranded DNA molecule that does not have introns, because mRNA contains only exons
DNA microarray
Technique used to screen a single sample for a vast range of different nucleotide sequences stimultaneously; it is often used to study gene expression
embryonic stem cells
Cells of an embryo that have not differentiated into various other types of cells.
enhancers
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes.
gene expression
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
gene regulation
ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment
growth factors
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells; a local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation.
homeotic genes
Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
nuclear transplantation
a technique in which the nucleus of one cell is placed into another cell that already has a nucleus or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed
operator
A specific DNA nucleotide sequence where transcriptional regulatory proteins can bind.
operon
A segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
regeneration
- Growth of cells and tissues to restore a lost structure
repressor
A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to a promoter site
reproductive cloning
The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus.
signal transduction pathway
A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
silencers
Contain binding sites for repressors which inhibit transcription
therapeutic cloning
The cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes, such as the replacement of body cells that have been irreversibly damaged by disease or injur
transcription factors
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes
X chromosome inactivation
process that occurs in female mammals in which one of the X chromosomes is randomly turned off in each cell