How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

116 terms

Anatomy-Skeletal

STUDY
PLAY
epiphysis
Site of spongy bone in the adult
diaphysis
site of compact bone in the adult, scientific name for bone shaft
red marrow
site of hematopoiesis in the adult
yellow marrow cavity
site of fat storage in the adult
epiphyseal plate
site of longitudinal growth in a child
elastic cartilage
supports the external ear and the epiglottis
fibrocartilage
between the vertebrae, meniscus in a knee joint, most effective at resisting compression
hyaline cartilage
forms the walls of the voice box (larynx), articular cartilages, connects the ribs to the sternum
cocentric lamellae
layers of calcified matrix around a central canal
lacunae
"residences" of osteocytes
central (haversian) canal
longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
bone matrix
nonliving, structural part of bone, inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance
canaliculi
tiny canals, connecting lacunae, minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
examples of long bones
humerus, ulna, and phalanx
examples of short bones
carpals and tarsals
examples of flat bones
parietal and ribs
examples of irregular bones
calcaneus and vertebra
spine
sharp slender process
tubercle
small rounded projection
crest
narrow ridge of bone
tuberosity
large rounded projection
head
structure supported on neck
ramus
armlike projection
condyle
rounded, convex projection
fissure
narrow depression or opening
meatus
canal like structure
foramen
opening through a bone
fossa
shallow depression
sinus
air-filled cavity
trochanter
large, irregularly shapped projection
epicondyle
raised area of a condyle
process
projection or prominence
frontal
forehead bone
zygomatic
cheek bone
mandible
lower jaw
nasal
bridge of nose
palatine bone
posterior part of hard palate
parietals
much of the lateral and superior cranium
occipital
most posterior part of cranium
sphenoid
single, irregular, bat-shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor
lacrimal bone
tiny bones, bearing tear ducts
maxilla
anterior part of hard palate
ethmoid
superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections
temporal
site of mastoid process, middle ear found here
temporal bone
site of styloid process
ethmoid, frontal, maxilla, sphenoid
four bones, containing paranasal sinuses
occipital
its condyles articulate with the atlas, foramen magnum contained here
vomer
nasal septum
deltoid tuberosity
raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches
humerus
arm bone
clavicle and scapula
bones composing the shoulder girdle
radius and ulna
forearm bones
acromian
point where scapula and clavicle connect
scapula
shoulder girdle bone that has no attachment to the axial skeleton
clavicle
shoulder girdle bone that articulates anteriorly with the sternum, commonly called the collarbone
glenoid cavity
socket in the scaula for the arm bone
trochlea
distal medial process of the humerus, joins the ulna
ulna
medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position, forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint
capitulum
rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius
scapula and sternum
bones that articulate with the clavicle
carpals
bones of the wrist
phalanges
bones of the fingers
metacarpals
heads of these bones form the knuckles
ilium, ischium, and pubis
fuse to form the coxal bone (hip bone)
ischial tuberosity
recieves the weight of the body when sitting
pubic symphysis
point where the coxal bones join anteriorly
iliac crest
upper margin of illiac bones
acetabulum
deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thighbone
femur
longest bone in body, articulates with the coxal bone
fibula
lateral bone of the leg
tibia
medial bone of the leg
femur and tibia
bones forming the knee joint
tibial tuberosity
point where the patellar ligament attaches
patella
kneecap
tibia
shinbone
medial malleolus
distal process on medial tibial surface
lateral malleolus
process forming the outer ankle
calcaneus
heel bone
tarsals
bones of ankle
metatarsals
bones forming the instep of the foot
oubturator foramen
opening in a coxal bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami
greater and lesser trochanter
sites of muscle attachment on the proximal end of the femur
tallus
tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia
simple fracture
bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin
closed reduction
nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone
greenstick fracture
a break common in children; bone splinters but break is incomplete
compression fracture
a fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column
compound fracture
a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin
open reduction
surgical realignment of broken bone ends
spiral fracture
a result of twisting forces
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoclasts
bone destroying cells that break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
rickets
bones in children fail to calcify due to a lack of calcium and vitamin D
funny bone
inner condyle where ulnar nerve is exposed
male pelvis
pubic arch is less than 90 degrees, heart shaped inlet of true pelvis, more curved sacrum
female pelvis
pubic arch is greater than 90 degrees, more round heart shaped inlet of true pelvis, less curved sacrum
arches of the foot
bones are arranged to form 3: ligaments, tendons, and bone, 2 longitudinal and 1 transverse
hematoma
blood filled swelling
repair of bone fractures
1. Hemotoma is formed (blood vessels ruptured)
2. Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus
3. Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus (osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
4. Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
axial skeleton
forms the longitudinal part of the body, divided into three parts: skull, vertebral column, bony thorax
the skull
2 sets of bones: cranium (encloses brain), facial bones (facial expression)
sutures
what joins bones
Paranasal sinuses
hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity, lighten the skull, give resonance and amplification to the voice
hyoid bone
the only bone that does not articulate with another bone, serves as a movable base for the tongue, moves larynx (voice box)
fontanelles
fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in a fetal skull, allow the brain to grow, convert to bone within 24 months after birth
vertebral column
33 bones at birth, 26 bones per adult, axial support
bony thorax
forms a cage to protect major organs, sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae
appendicular sternum
limbs (appendages), pectoral girdle (shoulder), pelvic girdle
pectoral (shoulder) girdle
composed of two bones: clavicle (colar bone, attaches to sternum), scapula (shoulder blade), allow the uper limbs to have exceptionally free movement
articular cartilage
covers epiphysis, thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints
periosteum
covers diaphysis , Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
coronal suture
between frontal and parietal
lambdoid suture
between parietal and occipital
sagittal suture
divides right and left parietal bones
squamous suture
between parietal and temporal