36 terms

Ch. 1: Pharmacology-Drug Action (Set 1-Terms)

pharmaceutic phase
phase in which drug becomes a solution so that it can cross the biologic membrane
process in which a drugs in a solid form (tablet or capsule) must disintegrate into small particles to dissolve into a liquid
fillers& inert substances uesd in drug preporation to allow the drug to take on a paticular size, shape & to enchane dissolution
breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles
dissolving of the smaller particles of a disintegrated tablet in the GI fluid before absorption
rate limiting
the time it takes the drug to disintegrate and dissolve to become available for the body to absorb it
study of the history, sources, physical and chemical properties of drugs and how they effect living things
WHAT THE DRUG DOES TO THE BODY. The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors.,
the study of the movement of drugs and their metabolites through the body from absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and metabolism to excretion (basically, what the body does to the drug)
a major study in the realm of pharmacology concerned with how drugs are used in the treatment of disease within the human body; HOW WE USE DRUGS TO MANIPULATE MIND/BODY
study of drugs derived from natural sources, such as herbals
a fake drug used in the testing of medication; usually a sugar pill
disintegration and dissolution
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
drug-receptor interaction
passive absorption
occurs mostly by diffusion, higher to lower concentration, the drug does not require energy to move across membrane
active absorption
requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move drug against concentration gradient
process by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles
first-pass effect
the initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream
subcategory of absorption. It is the percentage of the administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
movement of drug particles from the GI tract to body fluids by passive absorption, active absorption, or pinocytosis
process by which the drug becomes avail. to body fluids and body tissues
protein-binding effect
Only free drugs(not bound to protein) are active and can cause a pharmacologic response.; , Higher protein binding = less free (active) drug.
free drugs
Drugs not bound to protein
drug metabolism
the enzymatic alteration of drug structure. Influenced by hepatic enzymes, is the process whereby the body inactivates medicines.
drug half-life
period of time required for amount of drug in body to be , reduced by 50%.
drug elimination
the removal of drugs from the body. Influenced by kidney function
creatine clearance
test to determine renal function; , measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing creatinine form the blood
metabolic by-product of muscle that is excreted by the kidneys
the study of drug concentration and its effects on the body
primary drug effect
is the desired therapeutic effect
secondary drug effect
all other effects porduced by the drug. desirable or undesirable
drug response
relationship b/w the minimal vs. the maximal amt of drug dose needed to produce the desired effect
onset of action
the time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is admin
peak action
occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration
duration of action
the length of time the drug has a pharmacologic effect