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pharmaceutic phase

phase in which drug becomes a solution so that it can cross the biologic membrane


process in which a drugs in a solid form (tablet or capsule) must disintegrate into small particles to dissolve into a liquid


fillers& inert substances uesd in drug preporation to allow the drug to take on a paticular size, shape & to enchane dissolution


breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles


dissolving of the smaller particles of a disintegrated tablet in the GI fluid before absorption

rate limiting

the time it takes the drug to disintegrate and dissolve to become available for the body to absorb it


study of the history, sources, physical and chemical properties of drugs and how they effect living things


WHAT THE DRUG DOES TO THE BODY. The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors.,


the study of the movement of drugs and their metabolites through the body from absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and metabolism to excretion (basically, what the body does to the drug)


a major study in the realm of pharmacology concerned with how drugs are used in the treatment of disease within the human body; HOW WE USE DRUGS TO MANIPULATE MIND/BODY


study of drugs derived from natural sources, such as herbals


a fake drug used in the testing of medication; usually a sugar pill


disintegration and dissolution


absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs


drug-receptor interaction

passive absorption

occurs mostly by diffusion, higher to lower concentration, the drug does not require energy to move across membrane

active absorption

requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move drug against concentration gradient


process by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles

first-pass effect

the initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream


subcategory of absorption. It is the percentage of the administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation


movement of drug particles from the GI tract to body fluids by passive absorption, active absorption, or pinocytosis


process by which the drug becomes avail. to body fluids and body tissues

protein-binding effect

Only free drugs(not bound to protein) are active and can cause a pharmacologic response.; , Higher protein binding = less free (active) drug.

free drugs

Drugs not bound to protein

drug metabolism

the enzymatic alteration of drug structure. Influenced by hepatic enzymes, is the process whereby the body inactivates medicines.

drug half-life

period of time required for amount of drug in body to be , reduced by 50%.

drug elimination

the removal of drugs from the body. Influenced by kidney function

creatine clearance

test to determine renal function; , measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing creatinine form the blood


metabolic by-product of muscle that is excreted by the kidneys


the study of drug concentration and its effects on the body

primary drug effect

is the desired therapeutic effect

secondary drug effect

all other effects porduced by the drug. desirable or undesirable

drug response

relationship b/w the minimal vs. the maximal amt of drug dose needed to produce the desired effect

onset of action

the time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is admin

peak action

occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration

duration of action

the length of time the drug has a pharmacologic effect

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