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History Chapter 9

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The Tripoli War
1801: was caused by American refusal to pay tribute to Tripoli when navigating the Mediterranean Sea. Asserted America's ability to fight foreign wars and freedom of the seas.
The Revolution of 1800
Jefferson saw his election as the true end of Federalist aristocracy in America and so referred to it as this. It was the first peaceful exchange of governing power in history.
President Thomas Jefferson
Became third president in 1801. His presidency shifted power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans. Promoted bipartisan politics in his inaugural speech, shifted policies so that the government was more frugal and restrained
Albert Gallatin
Jefferson's secretary of the treasury. Repealed all internal taxes (whiskey tax, real estate "window" tax) and cut the nation's army budget in half, reducing national debt. The Jefferson administration also replaced all customs agents left over from Fed. regime.
Naturalization Act of 1802
Repealed the Nat. Act of 1798 (which required 14 years of occupancy to become a citizen) and made the requirements for citizenship a five-year residency, loyalty to the Constitution, and the forsaking of foreign allegiances.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Act passed by Adams in his final days of presidency creating 16 new judgeships and reducing the number of Supreme Court justices from 6 to 5. Its intent was to maintain Fed. control of the judiciary. The Democratic-Republican congress repealed this shortly after taking power.
Judge John Pickering
Partisan Federalist judge impeached by the Democratic-Republican congress; his age and his alcoholism made him an easy target.
Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase
Following Pickering's impeachment, the Dem-Reps moved to impeach this guy. However, the Senate failed to convict him. His acquittal established that justices could be impeached for crime, but not for politics. Established independence of the judiciary branch.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist leader of the Supreme Court. Made the Court an equal branch of government and significantly increased its power in the Marbury v. Madison case.
judicial review
The power of the Supreme Court to rule on the Constitutionality of legislation and presidential acts.
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury was appointed to a judgeship by Adams, but after Jefferson was elected Madison failed to certify his commission. Marbury sued and applied for a Writ of Mandamus. Marshall made "perfect decision": ruled that Writs of Mandamus were unconstitutional because the S.C. can only judge State v. State and International cases. This case established the power of judicial review.
Writs of Mandamus
Court order that says someone wronged by a government employee can go directly to the Supreme Court.
Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson purchased 827,000 square miles of land from Napoleon in France in 1803. After the Haitian revolution, Napoleon had no reason to keep LA because he could no longer use Haiti as a launching ground for an invasion. This doubled the size of the nation and opened the roaad to continental expansion, but presented Jefferson with a dilemma over the constitutionality of buying land.
Lewis and Clark expedition
A military, science, and trade expedition sent by Jefferson to discover the fastest route to the Pacific, establish trade with Native Americans, map the new territory, and gather scientific samples. Opened the doors for westward expansion.
York
Clark's slave, invaluable to expedition, was not granted freedom after it ended.
Sacagawea
15 year old wife of a French fur trader who guided Lewis and Clark on their cross country journey.
Pike's expedition
Expedition into the west succeeding that of Lewis and Clark. Looking for a continent-cutting river and a navigable route west; held captive in Mexico but unintentionally discovered a potential commercial market in southwest Spanish territory.
Essex Junto
Coalition of Federalists from the Northeast, planned to secede from the union during Jefferson's presidency.
Young Federalists
Young generation of federalists who emerged after the election of 1800, prominent memeber was Josiah Quincy.
political barbecues
Regional barbecues that celebrated Democratic-Republicans; fueled slander and gossip but prevented violent expression of dissent.
Twelfth Amendment
Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President. Response to Burr challenging Jefferson for the presidency
Hamilton-Burr duel
Long political rivals Hamilton and Burr dueled in 1804 as a result of Hamilton stopping Burr from being elected governor of New York. Burr shot and killed Hamilton, and fled to the west, guilty of murder. He later plotted to raise a private army and grab land from the U.S. He was caught and tried for treason, acquitted, and the fled to Europe.
Election of 1804
Jefferson was reelected over Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Prophet
Native American religious leader; stressed a return to the "old ways" of the Indians and drew many followers.
Tecumseh
Along with his brother, The Prophet, he worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes against the federal government. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Battle of Tippecanoe
November 1811: Harrison's army moved against Tecumseh, Prophet, and his followers. They burned down the town of Tippecanoe. This caused the unraveling of the Indian resistance movement.
impressment of American sailors
From 1803-1812, thousands of American soldiers were detained by the British navy as alleged deserters. Americans saw this as an assault on their newly won independence and a challenge to their rights as a neutral nation.
Non-Importation Act
Passed in 1806 to counter impressment. Barred British industrial goods from entering the U.S. Had little effect on British trade but deteriorated Anglo-American affairs.
Chesapeake affair
British ship the Leopold fired on America's U.S.S. Chesapeake and captured four Americans they thought to be deserters. This unified the nation against the British and strengthened the emotional impact of impressment.
peaceable coercion
Jefferson's policies to end maritime conflicts without violence, such as Non-Intercourse Act, Macon's Bill #2 (both unsuccessful)
Embargo Act
Forbade all U.S. exports to any country. Meant to avoid confrontation and put pressure on France & Britain. Unpopular and unsuccessful.
election of 1808
Jefferson renounced third term, Madison elected, Federalists gain Congress seats.
Non-Intercourse Act 1809
Reopened trade with all nations except Britain or France, and gave the President the power to resume trade with either if they ceased violation of neutral rights. Mostly ineffective, negative effect on economy
Macon's Bill No. 2
Reopened trade with both Britain and France but provided that if either nation stopped violating neutral rights, they would again suspend trade with the other. US was tricked by Napoeon who agreed to honor bill and then continued seizing American ships.
Orders in Council
Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations
Milan and Berlin Decrees
The Berlin Decree initiated Napoleon's Continental System, issuing a blockade on Britain. The Milan decree enforced the Berlin decree stating no European country was to trade with G.B. Both were unsuccessful and led to France's economic ruin.