DNA/RNA

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Terms in this set (...)

What are the parts of a nucleotide?
Sugar, phosphate, base
What kind of sugar is found in a nucleotide?
Deoxyribose
Which nucleotide component contains nitrogen?
Bases
Name the four nitrogen bases in DNA
Guanine, Adenine, Thymine, and Cytosine
What makes up the rungs of the "ladder" in DNA?
Sugar and phosphate
What type of biological molecule is a DNA helicase?
Enzyme
What is the role of the DNA helicase in the replication of DNA?
Unzips the DNA molecule
What rule is used to join the free nucleotides to the exposed bases of the DNA?
Complementary base pair rule
What holds together the nitrogen bases
weak hydrogen bonds
What is the complementary base pair rule
adenine and thymine must be pairs and guanine and cytosine must be pairs
How many strands of DNA are there
two
How many strands of RNA are there
one
What kind of sugar is in RNA
ribose (5 carbons sugar)
How is the sugar in DNA and RNA different
DNA sugar has one less oxygen
How many different kinds of RNA are there
30
What is Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Transfers DNA code to ribosomes for translation (looks like a comb)
"copier"
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
ribosomes are made of rRNA and protein
What are the groups of 3 nitrogen bases in mRNA called
codons
What is Transcription
RNA molecules are made by copying a gene sequence of DNA into complementary sequence in RNA (mRNA codes for 1 trait/gene)
What is a 3 RNA sequence called
codon
What is the start codon sequence
AUG
What is one of the three stop codon sequence
UGA, UAA, UAG
What is an exon
sections of DNA that code for an amino acids in a gene
What is an intron
sections of bases that do not code for amino acids in a gene, "junk DNA"
What is translation
When the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins
What is the 1st step in translation
transcription occurs in the nucleus
2nd step of translation
mRNA moves to the cytoplasm then to the ribosomes. tRNA reads the mRNA and obtains the amino acid coded for it
3rd step of translation
ribosomes attach amino acids together to form a polypeptide chain
4th step of translation
protein chain keeps growing until a stop codon is reached
Describe replication of DNA
1. Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides break
2. strands of DNA separate
3. free nucleotides are attracted to exposed bases on the loose strands of DNA
4. hydrogen bonds between nucleotides form
A RNA sequence includes 15 nitrogen bases. How many amino acids are does this sequence encode?
5
What are the building blocks of protein?
Amino acids
What is the sequence of protein synthesis?
DNA--Transcription--Translation--Protein
Which cell organelle is responsible for protein building?
Ribosomes
What replaces Thymine (in DNA) in RNA
Uracil
In mRNA, each codon specifies a particular....
gene
Ways DNA and RNA are different
- RNA in one stranded (DNA is two)
-RNA can leave the nucleus (DNA can not)
- RNA sugar is ribose (DNA dexoyribose)
- RNA has uracil (DNA has Thymine)
What is the structure(shape) of DNA
Double helix
What is the process of the DNA code being copied into mRNA called...
Transcription
Codons
3 nucleotide bases in a row that code for an amino acid
What do codons code for?
Amino Acids
How many amino acids are there?
20
What are the building blocks of protein?
amino acids
How many backbone strands exist in an RNA molecule?
One
Where are some places DNA is always found?
-Nucleus
-Mitochandria
-Cytoplasm
Reason why the DNA can not leave the nucleus
- It is to big
- It is to important
What is a small section of DNA that codes for a protein?
Gene
What happens in replication?
A DNA strand makes a copy of itself
How many different nitrogen bases are in DNA
4
What kind of organic compounds are DNA and RNA?
nucleic acids
Erwin Chargaff
Developed the idea that certain nitrogen bases bonded together
If there are 15 nitrogen bases, how many amino acids are there
15
Transcription TTAAC
AAUUG
A nucleotide does not contain what?
An amino acid
In porkaryotes, what is the DNA found
Cytoplasm
What is it called when enzymes are linking a nucleotide
DNA polymerase
What is it called when DNA turns into mRNA
transcription
How many codons are in a genetic code
64
Can some codons specify the same amico acid?
Yes
Who won the Noble prize for the shape of DNA
- Watson
- Crick
- Wilkins
What was the evidence that told Watson and Crick the DNA shape and who took it?
Photo 51
Rosalind Franklin
If a DNA sequences is ACT, what is the mRNA code
UGA
What is it called when tRNA brings amino acids to ribosomes?
Translation
If tRNA is UGG, what is the original DNA sequence?
TGG
How many different kinds of DNA are there?
One
If a DNA sequence if mRNA is UUG
AAC
If tRNA sequence is UGC, what is the complementary DNA code
ACG