chapter 20 part 2
Terms in this set (54)
What is Fascism? what did it want to do? what did it put? what did it emphasize?
-Extreme form of nationalism
-Wanted to mobilize people for a grand task
-Put faith in a charismatic leader
-Emphasized the power of the state
What did fascism condemn?
-Condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, parliamentary democracy, and communism
Why did fascism become popular for some?
-People were disillusioned from the war
-Some saw the rise of socialism and communism as a threat
-People lost faith in liberal democracy and capitalism
How is the rise of Hitler and the Nazis similar to the rise of Mussolini and the fascists?
-Liberal or democratic political leaders faced considerable hostility
-People demanded decisive action from the state
-Passionate opposition to communism
-Other political parties were banned
-Independent labor unions were ended
-Thousands of opponents were arrested
-Press and radio came under state control
How is the rise of Hitler and the Nazis different to the rise of Mussolini and the fascists?
-Italy was not humiliated by the components of the Treaty of Versailles (had switched sides)
-Had anti-semitism but nothing in comparison to Nazi Germany's overt anti-semitism
What did the Nazi party believe in?
-Intense German nationalism
-Bitter hatred for Jews
-Passionate opposition to communism
-Determination to rescue Germany from the humiliating requirements of the Treaty of Versailles
-Willingness to tackle the country's economic problems
What did Hitler establish control over once he was in power? what did he invest in?
-Established firm control over German society
-Invested in infrastructure projects
once hitler came to power, what did hitler consolidate? what did he outlaw? who were arrested?
nazi control of germany, all other political parties were outlawed, his opponents
what did hitlers policies do to germany? what did he do to the military?
brought them out of the depression, Rebuilt and re-armed the country's military forces
once hitler was in power what came under state control?
press and radio
How did the Nazis reject the ideas of the Enlightenment?
How did the Nazis reflect the ideas of the Enlightenment?
-The legacy of modern science
-The concern to classify and rank various human groups
-Confidence in the perfectibility of humankind
-The belief in social engineering
How is Japan similar to Germany and Italy?
Newcomers to great power status, they had a rather limited experience with democratic politics, they Moved toward an authoritarian government and a denial of democracy at home during the 1930s
How is Japan different to Germany and Italy?
-Japan's participation in World War I was minimal
-Its economy grew considerably as other industrial countries were engaged in the European war
How did the Great Depression affect Japan?:
what impoverished millions of rural dwellers?
what did many people begin to doubt?
what movements were started?
who were assassnated by whom?
did a fascist party emerge?
growth of ______
what did censorship limit?
-Shrinking world demand for silk impoverished millions of rural dwellers who raised silkworms
-Many began to doubt the ability of parliamentary democracy and capitalism to address Japan's "national emergency"
-Growing movements known as Radical nationalism or the Revolutionary Right
-Members of such groups assassinated a number of public officials
-No major fascist party emerged
-Did not produce any charismatic leader like Mussolini or Hitler
-The growth of right-wing nationalist thinking
-Censorship limited free expression
-Single news agency
How did the Japanese view themselves? How did they view citizens of Western countries?
-An emperor of divine origin related to his subjects as a father to his children
-Students now had to engage in more physical training
Citizens of Western countries:
-Conglomerations of separate individuals with no deep foundation between ruler and citizen to unite them
How did Japan emerge out of the Great Depression?
-Rise of the military
-Large-scale spending on armaments
-Public works projects
-Japan emerged out of the Depression more rapidly and more fully than major Western countries
-Government assumed a supervisory role
-Gave subsidies to strategic industries
-Profit ceilings on major corporations
-Caps on wages, prices, and rents
-Private property was retained
-Still less repressive and more pluralistic than fascist Italy or Nazi Germany
why and how dis japan emerge out of the great depression?
-it began in Asia
-Japanese imperial ambitions
-Strong Japanese nationalism
-Japanese military units seized Manchuria in 1931 and established a puppet state called Manchukuo
-Japan left the League of Nations, broke politically with its Western allies, and in 1936 aligned itself more closely with Germany and Italy
-Japan attacked China in 1937
Why did the Japanese believe that their national survival was at stake?
-Felt isolated, surrounded, and threatened
-Felt like an unequal power with Britain and the United States
-Felt European racism
-Dependent on foreign and especially American sources of strategic goods
-US was hostile to Japanese ambitions in Asia
-Western powers controlled resource-rich colonies in Southeast Asia
Why did Japan start the war?
Either they could accept American terms which would reduce Japan to a 2nd or 3rd rank power or war with an uncertain outcome
What were the causes of World War II in Europe?
-Germans resented their country's position in the international arena since the Treaty of Versailles
-Britain, France, and the Soviet Union did not confront that aggression forcefully and collectively
-A more deliberate and planned war than World War I
-Hitler wanted more land (lebensraum= living space) in the east, Poland and Russia
-This required war
How did Hitler start the war?
-1935- major rearmament program
-1936- Entered the Rhineland (was demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles)
-1938- Germany annexed Austria and the German-speaking parts of Czechoslovakia
-The British and the French appeased Hitler
-1939- Hitler attacked Poland; this was the trigger for WWII
-By 1941, most of Europe was under Nazi control
How was World War II different from World War I?
WWI: Trench warfare which emphasized defense, Total deaths= 10 million
WWII: The German tactic of blitzkrieg (lightening war) coordinated the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over very large areas/
Most destructive conflict in world history (total deaths- 60 million)/Many deaths were civilians/ Civilians were targets
Who was hit the hardest by World War II? Why?
The Soviet Union
Accounted for more than 40 percent of the deaths (25 million)
How did Japan affect China during World War II?
-15 million deaths
-Killing of every person and every animal in many villages
-Rape of Nanjing (1937-1938)- 200,000-300,000 civilians were killed and often mutilated; countless women were sexually assaulted
-German bombing of British cities
-Allied firebombing of Japanese and German cities
-Dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
-Indiscriminate brutality worse than the horrors of World War I
What was one of the most haunting outcomes of the war? Why?
-6 million Jews perished
-Millions more were killed as well (Russians, Poles, and other Slavs, Gypsies, mentally or physically handicapped people, homosexuals, communists, and Jehovah's Witnesses)
What were the consequences of the Holocaust?
-Many fled to Israel and gave urgency to the establishment of a modern Jewish nation in the Jewish homeland
-Outraged many Arabs, some of whom were displaced by the arrival of the Jews
-Has fostered an enduring conflict in the Middle East
-Defined a new category of crimes against humanity (genocide- the attempted elimination of entire peoples)
Did universal condemnation of the Holocaust prevent future genocides?
no, Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Sudan
What were the consequences of World War II?
-Europe's role diminished
-Asian and African colonies achieved independence
-Emboldened nationalist and anti-colonialist movements everywhere
How did the Soviet Union's victory in World War II change its regime and power?
-Gave immense credibility to the communist regime and to its' leader, Joseph Stalin
-Celebrations on May 9th, Victory Day
-Veterans were honored
-Communist parties took power all across Eastern Europe
-Communist takeover in China in 1949
-Allowed the Chinese Communist Party to gain support and credibility by leading the struggle against Japan
-By 1950, the communist world seemed to many in the West very much on the offensive
Which international organizations were created after World War II?
-The United Nations- established in 1945 as a successor to the League of Nations; forum for international opinion; did not resolve major problems of the Cold War
-1945- The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were created whose purpose was to regulate the global economy, prevent another depression, and stimulate economic growth, especially in the poorer nations
They all shared the dominant presence of the United States; the United States emerged as a global superpower after World War II
How was Europe able to recover from the devastation of war?
1. The resiliency of an industrial society, once it had been established
2. The ability of the major Western European countries to integrate their recovering economies
3. The United States served as a reservoir of military manpower, economic resources, and political leadership for the West as a whole.
What was the Marshall Plan?
-Funneled into Europe $12 billion (with advisors and technicians)
-Motivated by humanitarian concern, desire to prevent a new depression by creating overseas customers for American industrial goods, and an interest in undermining the growing appeal of European communist parties
-It was successful; between 1948 and the 1970s, Western European economies grew rapidly, generating widespread prosperity and improving living standards
-Required its European recipients to cooperate with one another
-The EEC (Common Market)- reduced their tariffs and developed common trade policies
-Renamed the European Union in 1994; 12 of its members adopted a common currency, the euro
-Helped sustain Europe's economic recovery
What was the goal of NATO?
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-Military and political alliance
-Committed the United States and its nuclear arsenal to the defense of Europe against the Soviet Union
-Firmly anchored West Germany within the Western alliance
-"An empire by invitation" rather than by imposition
How did Japan become so successful?
-Under American occupation between 1945 and 1952
-In the 2 decades following the occupation, Japan's economy grew at the remarkable rate of 10 percent a year
-Had $2 billion in American aid during the occupation and even more from US military purchases in Japan during the Korean War (1950-1953)
-The democratic constitution imposed on Japan by American occupation authorities required that Japan have no military
-Therefore Japan depended on the United States for its military security
-More money was therefore available for productive investment
what do all wars have in common?
why did japan become so successful after WWII?
Why did Europe recover more quickly in WW2 then in WWI?
european integration and the marshall plan
Why did the US emerge as a super power?
they were the only country with nuclear bombs, they won the war
what is the Marshall plan?
when the US gave money to european countries. they all joined the ECC and became allies
what did US demand of European benefactors?
european recipients had to cooperate
name two ways facism is different from communism?
fascism had social mobility ,supported private businesses and private property.communism was anti religion.
why did the facist countries turn to facism originally?
anti-communist, people lost faith in democracy and capitalism, strong leaders
once hitler came to power what are three things he did?
1, he made press and news under state control
2. took away labor unions and enforced only one political party
3. strengthened military
why were the nazi's so popular?
-provided a scapegoat (jews)
-idea that they had a solution to their economic troubles
what did the Nazi's use to justify their persecution of jews and other minorities?
social darwinism and scientific racism
why was japan not considered a facist state?
-didnt obey charismatic leader
-racist, felt superiority
-no single party
-state didn't control media
what were reasons Japan took action in Asia that started WWII?
-they felt superior to other nations and to westerners
-wanted to prove their strength
-wanted asia for asians
-against western colonial states
why did japan attack pearl harbor?
-wanted to attack US navy
-U.S. blockage trade
which Areas did hitler take over?
where and bow did WWII begin?
-in asia, japan attacks china
-strong japans nationalism
what did japan seize in 1931?