Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (46)
July 14, 1789
The most significant date in French Revolution history because of the amount of people who revolted because of Louis XVI not willing to allow the people of the Third Estate to create a new Constitution. The day that the French people of the Third Estate rioted and that event in history is known as the fall of the Bastille. This date symbolized the triumph of despotism.
Been a state prison that held only seven people in total during the rioting. A small amount of weapons were located inside the prison. An imposing fortress that was constructed as eight towers connected by nine-foot-thick walls.
July 4, 1776
The day the Second Continental Congress approved the declaration of independence. The day America declared themselves as an independent state and absolved all loyalty to the British.
The ideas that occurred during the Enlightenment, "Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
This location was where America defeated the British army to end the American Revolution. Under the control of General Cornwallis the British army was forced to surrender to the American and French army and French fleet under George Washington in the year 1781.
the Constitution of 1789
The new Congress in America proposed for the addition of twelve new amendments in the year 1789. Out of the twelve only ten were ratified that are known as today as the Bill of Rights. The new Constitution of 1789 was a success was because of the addition of the newly promised Bill of Rights.
Bill of Rights
Congress proposed twelve amendments to the Constitution and only ten were ratified. These ten were from the ideas of natural rights philosophy of the eighteenth century philosophes. These rights include the freedom of speech, religion, press, petition, and assembly, as well as many more.
the marquis de Lafayette
This French aristocratic soldier fought in the American Revolution to "strike a blow against England" France's old enemy. When returning home from the war he was influenced from the actions of America that he soon spread the ideas that he obtained about when he was at war. Associated with George Washington, and returned with ideas of individual liberties, notion of republicanism, and popular sovereignty. This aristocratic soldier was a member of the Society of Thirty
The chief tax of France. This tax was a burdensome tax on the Third Estate because they were the only Estate forced to pay it. The First and Second Estate were exempted from this chief tax.
a radical, and appalled at the misery of the common people, wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise. His Conspiracy of Equals was crushed in 1796 and executed in 1797.
Dominated French and European history form 1799-1815. He brought the Revolution to an end yet was a child of it. The French Revolution had made possible his rise first in military and then to supreme power in France. He was born in Corsica after it was annexed to France. His dad was an Italian lawyer and came from a Florentine nobility. He also was able to study in France and became more familiar with the language. He wasn't liked by his fellows at first when he was lieutenant because he was short, Italian accented, and poor. He was very successful as a major general at just 25. Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais who was luxurious and flirtatious.
Italian and Egyptian campaigns
In Italy, Napoleon turned a group of ill-disciplined soldiers into an effective fighting force and in a series of stunning victories defeated the Austrians and dictated them to peace in 1797. When trying to conquer Britain, Napoleon tried going into Egypt and taking it, which in turn threatened India. But his plain failed and Napoleon left
First Consul and Emperor
The Emperor (Napoleon) was the First Estate and he was the most powerful. His word alone could make something automatically happen. There were two other consuls. Napoleon was made the First Consul for life. He later returned to the monarchy and crowned himself monarch.
an agreement that Napoleon arranged with the pope in 1801. Just by signing it, the pope acknowledged the accomplishments of the revolution and the Catholic Church was no longer an enemy of the French government.
The Civil Code
recognized the equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism.
Germaine de Stael
wrote novels and political works that said Napoleon was tyrannical. Napoleon then banned her books from France and exiled her to the German states where she continued to write.
Austerlitz and Trafalgar
the site of a decisive defeat of a combined French-Spanish fleet by the British navy in 1805
Another reason Napoleon fell from power was (Brotherhood) It was that the people of France would stick together against the other peoples. And as Napoleon spread so did this idea and he became a hated oppressor and other countries also began to hate him.
The Grand Army
more than 600,000 troops that invaded Russia and the Russians kept retreating, burning their own villages behind them. They fought once at Borodino where the French won a costly battle. The Russians kept on retreating and when they finally got to Moscow, everything was burned so the French army left. Only 40,000 men made the trek back to Poland alive.
Elba and St. Helena
Napoleon was allowed to rule on the island of Elba once he was defeated but he grew tired of this and went back and rallied the French. Him and his army went and attacked Belgium at Waterloo and fought the British and Prussians. He lost badly. He was then exiled to the small forsaken island of Saint Helena.
The Estates General consisted of three Estates: First Estate (Clergy), Second Estate (Nobility), and Third Estate (Everyone else). This government were representatives from the three orders of society. Opened on at Versailles on May 5, 1789 and were divided from the start due to the opposition to vote by order or by head. They regulated the legislation of the king and decided what taxes would be passed or not. This government had the power to veto edicts, allow the French economy and reforms to create chaos in society.
vote by order or by head?
The Estate General had a problem with the vote by order or by head. Vote by order was that the Three Estates would only get one vote per society and no double vote allowed. This voting system was unfair because the First and Second Estate would outnumber the Third Estate when it came to imposing taxes or other actions upon the Third Estate. Vote by head would allow for the voting of all members in the Estates General even the Third Estate. This would have been fair because now everyone had a say so and the Third Estate would not have been easily outnumbered like it had been before.
A representative that issued a pamphlet that asked, "Why is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something." He felt that the Third Estate was more important than the other two Estates and the government should be serving the people. His pamphlet was not a general feeling in the year 1789.
the National Assembly
The Third Estate wanted to constituted itself and on June 17, 1789 broke away from the Estates General. They wanted to draw up a new Constitution and with the help of the two other Estates whom some members broke away from helped accomplished this new governments goal.
the Tennis Court Oath
On June 20, when the National Assembly was to meet they discovered that they were locked out from their room and decided to move to a nearby tennis court. Inside they swore that they would continue to meet until they produced a new French Constitution. This event helped fuel the leading steps to the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
On August 26, the National Assembly provided an ideological foundation for its actions and educational device for the nation by adopting their new constitution. This new charter of basic liberties reflected the ideas of major philosophes who part took in the French Enlightenment Era. This was modeled after the American Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 1789. The document provided the natural rights man was given to automatically and went on to describe the deconstruction of the current society.
Olympe de Gouges
A playwright and pamphleteer, whom refused to accept the exclusion of women from political rights. Was the writer of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen. In her document she insisted that the women in France should have the same rights as men, but as usual she was ignored by the National Assembly.
"We are bringing back the baker..."
On October 5, the women of Paris marched to Versailles to confront the king and the National Assembly about the price of bread. King Louis XVI complied with their demands, but that was not enough for the women of Paris. Allowing on October 6 to force the king and queen of France to move to the city of Paris to be prisoners of the people. While bringing back the king and queen to Paris the women of Paris were singing this famous phrase.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
This new constitution was put into effect on July 1790. This constitution clearly outlined that bishops and priests of the Catholic Church were to be elected by the people of France and paid by the state. Also the clergy was required to swear an oath of allegiance to the new constitution. The pope forbade this document and only 54% of the French parish clergy took the oath and most of the bishops in France refused to swear an oath. This was a crucial movement because in refusing to swear an oath on the constitution made the Catholic Church an enemy of the French Revolution.
A political club that was offering radical solutions to the nation's problems. They were against the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. First emerged as a gathering of radical deputies at the start of the French Revolution. Formed in former convents in Paris and provinces; which were used as discussion groups. Soon joined together in a correspondence network and by spring 1790 was seeking affiliation with a Parisian Club. Members were usually elites of their local society.
escape to Varennes
King Louis XVI was upset with the revolutionary events that he decided to flee France in June 1791. He and his family almost succeeded in escaping before being recognized. He was captured and returned to France, and many radicals wanted the king to be deposed of. Rather of deposing him the National Assembly ignored the king's escape and pretended that he was kidnapped.
Declaration of Pillnitz
The document was issued by Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia. This document invited other European monarchs to take "the most effectual means... to put the king of France in a state of strengthen, in the most perfect liberty, the bases of monarchial government equally becoming to the rights of sovereigns and to the well-being of the French Nation." European monarchs did not accept because they felt that a sense of suspiciousness coming from this declaration.
Meaning "without breeches." These people did not wear the fine clothes of the upper classes. Were the working class in Paris who were hostile to the aristocracy. They played an important role in the radical phase of the French Revolution. Teamed up with the Jacobins to carry out the second revolution and feared government representation.
The Paris Commune dominated the political scene before the National Convention even met. This was a small radical government that asked the legislative assembly to call for the election of universal male suffrage in France and to write a new democratic constitution.
Girondins and the Mountains
Two most important factions in the National Convention.
- A faction located in the southwestern France. Represented the provinces and feared the radical mobs in Paris and were disposed to keeping the king alive. Wanted to use the king as a scapegoat on the Paris mob.
- Second faction whose seats were located on the side of the convention hall slanted upward. The name for the Jacobins who had a higher power in the National Convention. Represented the city of Paris and much of its popularity came from the elements in the city. Middle class and were the ones to sentence the king to execution.
Peasants who revolted against the newly introduced military draft. Rebellion soon escalated into a full blown counterrevolution appeal. The National Assembly did not have any authority over these lands. Cities such as Lyons and Marseilles joined the Vendee to return to old older.
Led the Paris Commune before the National Convention came into power. Was one of the leaders of the radical side known as the Mountains. He was the sabs-culottes prime minister of justice and helped kill all of the people who helped the kings in anyway. Solved the problem of the overcrowded prison.
A legislative body called to write a democratic constitution. The National Convention consisted of artisans, lawyers, professionals, and property owners. The convention abolished the monarchy due to its dislike and created a republic. They soon spit once they started disagreeing. They split into two factions the Girondins and the Mountains.
Committee of Public Safety
Governmental body that sought to centralize the administration of France. This government wanted to have greater exercise control to oversee the excesses of the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
A period in history that lasted from June 1793 to July 1794. This period was marked with a lo of bloodshed because thousands of citizens were killed due to being suspected of being against the newly established republic. This system was supported by Robespierre, who was in favor of creating a utopia and needed to eliminate all who were against that idea.
Law of General Maximum
This law was introduced by the Committee of Public Safety. Established price controls on goods of first necessity such as clothes, drinks, and food. This law failed because the government did not have the machinery to enforce the law.
Temple of Reason
The cathedral of Notre Dame located in Paris was designated as a new temple in the period de-Christianization in France. This temple would hold a public ceremony that was dedicated to worship of reason. There was once a celebration of the people worshipping a female figure personifying Liberty rose out from the temple.
A son of an African slaves, who seized control of all of Hispaniola by 1801. He revolted against French plantation owners and was captured in 1802 after Napoleon sent an army to capture him.
Occurred after the execution of Robespierre and was named after the month of Thermidor. This event saw the ending of the Terror, and the lost of power from the Committee of Public Safety. Jacobin clubs were forced to shut down and churches were allowed to reopen in France. Worship from different cults were allowed to worship freely. Economic regulations were dropped due to laissez-faire. A new improved constitution was written in a more conservative republican viewpoint.
A period an era of materialistic reaction to the suffering and sacrifices that had been demanded in the Reign of Terror and the Republic of Virtue. The government consisted of five directors that held executive power in France. This government lasted from November 1795 to November 1799. This form was unpopular because it seemed that they would end the revolution in France.
In the Directory he pushed to go beyond earlier goals than the Jacobin initially planned to do so. He wanted to get rid of private property, enterprise and his Conspiracy of Equals was crushed and later executed. He was appalled by the misery of the common people.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP European History Chapter 19
AP European History Chapter 19
ap euro ch 19
AP EURO Ch. 19
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
GE Cluster 20B: Interracial Dynamics Final
Literatura AP Términos literarios
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
european union and stuff
Chapter 23 vocab
20. The EU
Final Historical Figures and Artists