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between spirilla and spirochetes, which is large, rigid and spiral with axial tufts, and which is thin flexible, helical, with an endoflagella?
spirilla are large rigid guys, spirochetes are the thin flexible guys with endoflagella (sound french)
what does strepto mean?
chains (my throat looked like a long red chain when I had strep)
what does staphlo mean?
what's the difference between peritrichous, lophotrichous and amphitrichous flagella?
peri= all over, lopho= tuft at one pole, amphi= tuft at each end
what is the mordant in gram staining?
iodine (intercalates into the starchy sugar molecules... do between crystal violet and alcohol wash)
what are lipoteichoic acids and teichoic acids in peptidoglycan layers?
lipoteichoic acids link to the plasma membrane... teichoic acids link to the peptidoglycan and provide antigen specificity
what residues are connected in the peptidoglycan framework to form diaminopimelic acid cross links?
lysine in the third position of one chain to the carboxy group of a terminal D-alanine-D-alanine of another
what is the cross linking reaction considered?
is the NAG-NAM pentapeptide made inside or outside the cell?
inside (then transported out for assembly)
what are the names of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking reaction?
D-alanine, D-alanine transpeptidase-carboxypeptidases
what can you target that enzyme with?
B-lactam antibiotics (like penicillin)
What does lysozyme target it the peptidoglycan formation process?
what are teichoic acids?
phosphodiester polymers of modified ribitol or glycerol. (part of gram positive cell walls and recognized by immune cells)
what is the name of the layer between the inner and outer gram negative cell membranes?
Is LPS found in gram negative or positive cells?
which part of LPS is the antigenic determinant and which is the endotoxin component?
O antigen is the antigenic determinant (determines serotypes) and Lipid A is the endotoxin
What do the serotype codes O and H stand for?
O stands for cell surface, and H stands for flagella
Do archae have a peptidoglycan wall? are they gram positive or negative?
no, and technically negative but not really
why do mycobacterium require an acid fast stain?
because though they have peptidoglycan similar to gram negative cells, they also have waxy glycolipid called MYCOLIC ACID
does mycoplasma have any peptidoglycan?
naw man, it's got a bitch naked membrane with sterols and doesn't gram stain
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