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APUSH Period 1 (1491-1607)

AP US History American Pageant 15th Edition Period 1 (1491-1607) Chapters 1-3 Key Terms/People to know
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Incas
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains. (6)
Aztecs
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernan Cortes. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies. (6)
Pueblo
Ancestral people in area around Mesa Verde, Colorado. Kiva, Chaco Canyon, Cult of the Kachinas, Human origin from the lower world with the assistance of a supernatural power, Sacred number four, Great Spirit.
Maize
(a.k.a. corn) this crop was the most important crop among all the Native Americans. It was traded over long distances and in Mesoamerica, it was somewhat genetically engineered to be more healthy and abundant.
three-sister farming
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields. (8)
caravel
Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey. (11)
conquistadores
Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires. (16)
Colombian Exchange
The transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492. (14)
Expansion/development of African slave labor
criminals, debtors, and captives were slaves in Africa first; slaves had rights and worked in houses, were often freed; Portuguese and Europeans accelerated the buying/selling of slaves; Portuguese set up trade empire in South China, India, and Indonesia
Renaissance
The time period which Europe flourished and the rebirth of new ideas and love of art. The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia. (15)
encomienda system
A labor system developed by the Spanish in colonial America. The Spanish crown granted control of native peoples located in defined areas The Spanish settler could exact tribute from the Indians and provide them protection and instruction in Christianity. Originally, the system was designed to reduce abuses of forced labor, but in practice, it became a form of enslavement. The system allowed the Spanish to exploit the natives and extract wealth from the land and its peoples.
Pope's Rebellion
(1680) Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico. (21)
Christopher Colombus
Discovered America by sea route, though mistakenly believed he had found the Indies. Supported by Ferdinand and Isabelle in 1492 (just after their victory over the Moors). He died in belief he had found the sea route to India, he didn't realize the reality when he landed in the Bahama's in October. He brought about permanent interaction between European and Native Americans. Though at times scoffed at for his geographical mistake, leading to a misconception about the Native Americans as they are called Indians, and it can be attributed to him the hardships the Natives faced post discovery. No doubt can be had that he was a excellent navigator and dared to go where no one else had yet ventured.
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish Dominican priest whose activism in behalf of Indians led to the reform of the Encomienda system. His multi-volume work, History of the Indies, documented Indian Culture and the devastating effects of the Encomienda system, Humanized them and gave statistics of impact on Indians of the system. His writings helped to persuade Spain to implement the Repartimiento System in 1550, which limited the use of forced Indian labor, Limits slavery to men only and only 45 days/year that they can work along and were supposed to get wages. Although the Encomienda System was phased out, it was replaced by another system of forced labor that used African slaves, They tried Indian slave trade in Europe previously but they couldn't survive in the region
Hernan Cortes
A conquistador who in 1519 led seven hundred men to Mexico to take the Aztec Empire and rob it of everything. The leader of the Aztecs, Moctezuma, believed that Cortes was a God and allowed him to enter the capital unopposed. On June 30, 1520, the Aztecs drove the Spanish out of the capital. In August 13, 1521, the Spanish laid siege to the city. A combination of disease and death led to the end of the Aztecs.
Francisco Coronado
A Spanish soldier and commander; 16th century Spanish explorer who was the first European to discover the Grand Canyon; A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
John Cabot
(1450 - c. 1499) was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator sailed to Canada in 1497. Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton Island (the exact spot is uncertain) on June 24, 1497. He was the first European since the Vikings to explore the mainland of North America and the first to search for the Northwest Passage.
Black Legend
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ. (22)
Act of Toleration
(1649) Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period. (32)