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Lesson 18 Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 5

Louis de Broglie

French graduate student in physics who proposed The DeBroglie Hypothesis, which states that particles have properties of waves as well as properties of particles, "the wave particle duality of nature"

DeBroglie formula



Planck's constant

Werner Heisenberg

German physicist who published the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: It is impossible to know the exact location and exact momentum of a particle at the same time

Erwin Schrodinger

1926, Austrian physicist who treated electrons as waves to help determine probability of location within an atom. This led to the creation of the quantum mechanical model that we use to explain the structure of the atom today.

Quantum numbers

used to differentiate between electrons

Principle Quantum Number

This number describes the energy level that the electron occupies. It can have a value from 1-7


Principle Quantum number's symbol

Orbital Quantum Number

this number describes the shape of the orbital that the electron is found in. Can have value 0-3. Defines the "sublevel" of the electron.


Orbital Quantum Number for 0; spherical shape; 1 orbital; 2 electrons


Orbital Quantum Number for 1; dumbbell shape; 3 orbitals; 6 electrons


Orbital Quantum Number for 2; 5 orbitals; 10 electrons


Orbital Quantum Number for 3; 7 orbitals; 14 electrons

Magnetic Quantum Number

this number describes the orientation of the electrons in the orbitals. This defines the "orbital" of the electron. Can have - or + values

Spin Quantum Number

this number describes the direction of spin of the electron in the orbital - electrons in the same level and sublevel must spin in opposite directions. Can have value of -1/2 or +1/2 only

Pauli Exclusion Principle

states no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers in the same atom

Orbital Diagrams

used to show the direction of spin

Hund's Rule

You must fill in orbitals in the same energy level with one electron before pairing up any electrons

Aufbau Principle

states that when predicting an atoms ground state electron configuration, electrons will occupy the lowest energy orbital available first

Noble gases

electron configurations can be written in terms of these

Dot Diagrams

this is a king of short hand that illustrates how many outer shell electrons an atom contains

Lewis Structures

Another name for dot diagrams

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