French graduate student in physics who proposed The DeBroglie Hypothesis, which states that particles have properties of waves as well as properties of particles, "the wave particle duality of nature"
German physicist who published the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: It is impossible to know the exact location and exact momentum of a particle at the same time
1926, Austrian physicist who treated electrons as waves to help determine probability of location within an atom. This led to the creation of the quantum mechanical model that we use to explain the structure of the atom today.
used to differentiate between electrons
Principle Quantum Number
This number describes the energy level that the electron occupies. It can have a value from 1-7
Principle Quantum number's symbol
Orbital Quantum Number
this number describes the shape of the orbital that the electron is found in. Can have value 0-3. Defines the "sublevel" of the electron.
Orbital Quantum Number for 0; spherical shape; 1 orbital; 2 electrons
Orbital Quantum Number for 1; dumbbell shape; 3 orbitals; 6 electrons
Orbital Quantum Number for 2; 5 orbitals; 10 electrons
Orbital Quantum Number for 3; 7 orbitals; 14 electrons
Magnetic Quantum Number
this number describes the orientation of the electrons in the orbitals. This defines the "orbital" of the electron. Can have - or + values
Spin Quantum Number
this number describes the direction of spin of the electron in the orbital - electrons in the same level and sublevel must spin in opposite directions. Can have value of -1/2 or +1/2 only
Pauli Exclusion Principle
states no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers in the same atom
used to show the direction of spin
You must fill in orbitals in the same energy level with one electron before pairing up any electrons
states that when predicting an atoms ground state electron configuration, electrons will occupy the lowest energy orbital available first
electron configurations can be written in terms of these
this is a king of short hand that illustrates how many outer shell electrons an atom contains