integumentary system pathology

tailored towards swedish massage students
congenital disorders
eczema, psoriasis
itchy skin disease characterised by redding and vesicle formation (may lead to weeping and crusting), outside agents don't play a role, found all over the body but most commonly on the inside of knee and elbow joints and on face hands and scalp, it is not contagious, if massaging use a hypoallergenic cream and if in acute stage it's better not to massage
chronic skin disease with no known cause, scaly pink patches covered in silvery scales form on the elbows knees and scalp, it is not infectious, local-contraindication
bacterial infections
acne rosacea, acne vulgaris, boils, folliculitis, impetigo
acne rosacea
abnormal redding of the nose and c heeks with pus-filled spots, can be aggrevated by heat, sunshine, spicy food, alcohol, cold etc. (anything that causes vasodilation), not contagious
acne vulgaris
inflammatory disorder od the sebaceous glands, normally caused by hormonal imbalances that increase sebum production the block glands and cause infection, it involves the face, back, chest and shoulders, it's not contagious
tender inflammed areas of skin containg pus, it's an infection usually caused by bacteria entering throygh a hair follicle or break in the skin
inflammation of hair follicles in the skin, caused by infection, common in adolescence and may be linked to acne vulgaris
superficial bacterial infection of the skin causing blisters that weep and leave think yellow crusts, highly contagious
viral infections
herpes simplex, herpes zoster verrucas, warts
herpes simplex (cold sores)
not confined to the mouth, inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes and is characterised by a collection of small blisters, highly contagious when active
herpes zoster (shingles)
caused by the same virus as chickenpox, usually affects spinal nerves and one side of the thorax (common in old folk)
warts on the sole of the foot, are often tender, highly contagious
small horny papules on the skin, found mainly on the back of the hands, caused by aviral infection, highly comtagious
fungal infections
tinea corporis, tinea pedis
tinea corporis (ringworm)
infection of the skin, scalp or nails, lesions are ring-like and cause intense itching, highly inectious
tinea pedis (athletes foot)
fungus infection of the skin between the toes, it's a type of ringworm
pigmentation disorders
albinism, chloasma, epheldes, lentigo, moles, naevae, port wine stain, vitiligo
inherited absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, resulting in white hair and pink skin and eyes, sufferers have poor eyesight and extreme ultraviolet sensitvity
brown parches on the cheeks and elsewhere on the face, a photosenstivity reaction in women on the combined oral pill or who are pregnant
ephelides (freckles)
small pigmented areas of skin that become more evident on exposure to sunlight, found on gace arms and legs
lentigo (liver spots)
dark patches of pigmentation that are more distinct than freckles, have a slightly raised appearance
non-malignant collection of pigmented cells in the skin, common occurence on face and body, vary in size, colour and vascular appearence (if mole changes size or is darker than normal, reccomend a visit to the GP)
naevae (birthmark)
cleraly defined malformation of the skin that's present at birth, found on any part of the body but more frequent on the face and neck and sometimes associated with strong hair growth, vary in size and strawberry naevae often affect babies eventually disappearing
port wine stain
permanent purplish discolouration that can occur anywhere but usually on the upper half of the body, caused by dilated capillaries near the skins surface
autoimmune disease in which the skins pigment cells are destroyed, white or pale macules appear on the skin
allergic reaction
often due to contact with chemical, drug or plant and cause inflammatory skin disorders when irritated causing red blotchy patches, watery stingy eyes, swellings and a runny nose
broken capillaries (brusing)
dilated capillaries on fine skin, colouring is due to congested blood vessels
comedones (blackheads)
plug of fatty material in the sebaceous glands in the skin, colour comes from oxidation, common in puberty
crows feet
fine lines around eyes caused by daily movement, associated with ageing of muscle tissue, premature formation may be due to eyestrain
inflammatory condition of the skin caused by outside agents, shows as reddness of the skin, itching and skin lessions, not contagious
abnormal protruding scars
milia (whiteheads)
sebum becomes trapped in a blind duct with no surface opening
abnormal reddening of the nose and cheeks with pus-filled spots
striae (stretch marks)
caused by stretching of the dermis, can be sensitive
sunlight disorders
skin cancer, sunburn, prickly heat (rash due to blockage of the sweat glands and photosensitivity (abnormal reaction to sunlight often resulting in a skin rash)
urticaria (hives/nettle rash)
itchy rash resulting from the release of histamine by mast cells, individual swellings appear rapidly and resolve spontaneously within hours (can lead to secondary infection by bacteria through scratching)
UV damage
UV rays stimulate rapid production of basal cells, causes stratum corneum to thicken, UVA overexposure can cause premature ageing and UVB overexposure can cause skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
cancer associated with cells in the lowest skin layer, skin develops nodules or shallow ulcers with raised edges, occurs on exposed parts of the skin, least malignant form of cancer
squamous cell carcinoma
cancer associated with cells on the upper skin layer, said to be caused by sunlight, chemicals ar physical irritants, consists of swelling that may resemble warts or ulcers that grow rapidly
mlignant melanoma
cancer of the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes), usually develops in a previously benign mole, the mole will become larger and darker, ulcerated, then the tumor eventually spreads
role of massage
reduces stress levels, not advised to massage over skin lessions, rashes etc. aromatherapy has proved useful and reflexology can produce dramatic results in psoriasis and dermatitis as affected areas can be worked through the feet