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Option A IB Sports Exercise
Terms in this set (60)
performing exercise in an organized manner on a regular basis with a specific goal in mind.
when an athlete attempts to do more training than he/she is able to physically or mentally tolerate. Results in a number of symptoms that are highly individualized.
transient over training.
Indicators of Overtraining
Sleep disturbance,Fatigue,decreased appetite, Chronic muscle soreness
Methods of Training
Flexibility,Strength and Resistance,Circuit ,Interval ,Plyometrics,Continuous,Fartlek Training/ Speed Play, AND Cross-Training
increase range of motion
Strength and Resistance Training
resistance against muscle contraction to increase size and/ or power
combining resistance and aerobic exercise to increase overall conditioning
maximal intensity interspersed with low intensity work for recovery. Flexible by changing duration, rest , or number of intervals. Cycling or rowing
fast, powerful, short-duration exercise to improve power and force. Rapid stretching followed by rapid contraction. Squat jumps
period of exercise without rest. Most successful to improve VO2 Max. Jogging
Fartlek Training/ Speed Play
combination of continuous and interval training. Random and spontaneous bouts of increased intensity without a strict routine.
using different techniques to improve overall performance. Do interval training one day and plyometrics another.
General preparation phase & Specific preparation phase
no large gains in fitness, but rather a focus on maintenance with improvement on sport specific skills and technique.
3-4 weeks. Recover mentally and physically from the season while maintaining an acceptable level of activity before beginning Preparation Phase.
entire year training program
specific block of training designed to achieve a specific goal that fits into one of the three phases (pre, comp, post)
weekly training program that forms the foundation of long-term goals. Includes training and rest periods that occur within a week but contribute to overall goal.
Relationship Between Cellular Metabolism and the Production of Heat
The energy liberated from dietary nutrients through reactions occurring in metabolism results in both heat production and the conservation of energy within the compound ATP.
Cellular metabolism overview
Food + O2 + ADP --> ATP + H2O + CO2 + Heat (entropy)
The normal core body temperature of a healthy, resting adult human
37.0 degrees celsius,axillary 36 - rectal 38 degrees celsius
Involves skin contact with an object of a different temperature
Body temperature is influenced by the flow of air across the skin
Describes the gain or loss of heat to the surrounding atmosphere
As sweat evaporates from the skin, a cooling effect is achieved thus releasing heat from the body.
Provides moisture which evaporates from the skin surface to try to maintain homeostasis,Formed through the filtration of plasma and excreted through pores in the skin, Mostly water with some sodium and chloride and a low concentration of potassium
heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Prevention of Heat Related Illness
Wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothing,Avoid lengthy warm-up periods on the day of the competition,Know sweat rate and the amount of fluid that they should drink,Ensure that acclimatization training allows for frequent hydration
Heat & Humidity
The body's temperature regulation mechanisms might not function effectively in hot and humid conditions, hyperthermia can result. Sweat does not evaporate and cool as easily due to the humidity.
skin arterioles dilate to allow heat in blood to be lost by radiation to cool body.
the reduced muscle blood flow in high temperatures results in increased glycogen breakdown in the muscle and higher levels of muscle and blood lactate in comparison to the same exercise performed in colder environments.
Surface Area to Body Mass Ratio
The body surface area is directly related to the heat exchange between the body and the environment
Heat transfer between the body and the environment is related to the exposed surface area
Tall, heavy individuals have a small body surface area to body mass ratio which makes them less susceptible to hypothermia
involuntary, rhythmic muscle contractions that produce mechanical energy to generate heat.
a cold-induced increase in heat production from the sympathetic nervous system acting to increase the cellular metabolic rate in skeletal muscle and other tissues.
skin arterioles constrict (vasoconstriction) diverting blood and the heat it carries to internal organs to raise/ maintain body temperature.
occurs when the skin and body tissues are exposed to cold temperature for a prolonged period of time
low body temperature (mild hypothermia is considered 34-35 degrees Celsius
Non-Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
Any substance or phenomenon that improves an athlete's performance
A positive effect on performance when an athlete thinks an ergogenic aid is beneficial
5 Classes of Banned Non-Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
Anabolic steroids,Hormones and related substances,Diuretics and masking agents,
Benifits of Banned Non-Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
include improvement in both anaerobic and aerobic performance, increase muscle mass and strength, provide faster recovery between training sessions and from injury.
considered cheating and puts other participants in the position of using them as well in order to remain competitive
the harmful effects of long-term use of ergogenic aids.
Hormone that stimulates red blood cell production by stimulating red bone marrow cells. Increases hemoglobin concentrations.
Benifits of EPO
increase in endurance performance,increased red blood cells,increased oxygen uptake and transport
Harmful Effects of EPO
Increased blood viscosity,Increased clotting tendency,Heart attack,Thrombosis
Class of substances that initiate or assist the process of building up the amount and/ or size of tissues in the body
Benifits of Anabolic Steroids
Lower body fat,Improved endurance,Increase muscle mass
Harmful Effects of Steroids
Heart problems and liver problems,testicular atrophy,Oily skin and acne,Altered mental state
Class of substances that block the influence of adrenaline
Benifits of Beta Blockers
Improved precision and accuracy,Reduced anxiety
Harmful Effects of Beta Blockers
Cardiac failure, Bronchospasms ,Hypoglycemia,Low heart rate and blood pressure
effect of temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness
Benefits of Caffeine
increases mental alertness, increases concentration, elevates mood, Improved endurance
Harmful Effects of Caffeine
Nervousness, Insomnia, Tremors,
Substances that increase the removal of water by increased urination.
Benefits of Diuretics
Weight control for sports with weight classes, Physical appearance to "look the part" in bodybuilding or gymnastics
Harmful Effects of Diuretics
Reduced thermoregulation, Fatigue, Cramps and soreness, Nausea