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complex pattern of changes made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant/includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, & behavioral actions
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
an emotional stimulus produces two concurrent reactions-arousal & experience of emotion-that do not cause each other
two-factor theory of emotion
emotional experiences arise from autonomic arousal & cognitive appraisal/how people deal with uncertainty
cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion
the experience of emotion is joint effect of physiological arousal & cognitive appraisal, which determines how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled/Stanley Schachter, Richard Lazarus/look at situation and decide how to handle it
movement within psychology that applies research to provide people with the knowledge & skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives
pattern of specific & nonspecific responses an individual makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium & exceed its ability to cope
transient state of arousal with typically clear onset & offset patterns/specific situation
continuous state of arousal in which individual perceives demands as greater that the inner & outer resources available for dealing with them
fight-or -flight response
sequence of internal activities triggered when an individual is faced with a threat/prepares the body for combat & struggle or for running away to safety/some researchers suggest this response is characteristic only of males
stressors prompt females to protect their offspring & join social groups to reduce vulnerability/some researchers suggest this response is characteristic only of females/Shelly Taylor-maybe
general adaptation syndrome
pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by any serious stressor. 1) alarm reaction-brief period of bodily arousal that prepares body for vigorous activity 2) stage of resistance-stage of moderate arousal when stressor is prolonged 3) stage of exhaustion-endure & resist further debilitating effects of prolonged stressors; exhaustion occurs when stressor is sufficiently long-lasting or intense
physical disorder aggravated by or attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other physiological causes
in stress research, the measure of stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period
post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)
anxiety disorder characterized by persistent re-experience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociation flashbacks/sufferers experience emotional numbing in relation to everyday events & feelings of alienation from other people/develops in response to war, rapes, life-threatening events, severe injury, natural disasters
process of dealing with internal or external demands perceived to be threatening or overwhelming
stress moderator variable
variable that changes the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction
efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate imbalance between perceived demands & available resources. 1)problem-related coping-confront the problem directly (controllable stressors) 2)emotion-focused coping-lessen the discomfort associated with the stress(uncontrollable stressors)
belief that one has the ability to make a difference the course or consequences of some event or experience
resources, including material aid, socioemotional support, & informational aid, provided by others to help a person cope with stress
field of psychology devoted to understanding the way people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill & the ways they respond when they become ill
model of health & illness that suggests links among the nervous system, immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, & environmental domains of health
optimal health, incorporating the ability to function fully & actively over the physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social, & environmental domains of health
self-regulatory by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological processes
Type A behavior pattern
complex pattern of behavior & emotions that includes being excessively competitive, aggressive, impatient, time urgent, & hostile/highly competitive & ambitious; often are loners/higher risk for
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