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complex pattern of changes made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant/includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, & behavioral actions

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

an emotional stimulus produces two concurrent reactions-arousal & experience of emotion-that do not cause each other

two-factor theory of emotion

emotional experiences arise from autonomic arousal & cognitive appraisal/how people deal with uncertainty

cognitive-appraisal theory of emotion

the experience of emotion is joint effect of physiological arousal & cognitive appraisal, which determines how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled/Stanley Schachter, Richard Lazarus/look at situation and decide how to handle it

subjective well-being

individuals' overall evaluation of life satisfaction & happiness

positive psychology

movement within psychology that applies research to provide people with the knowledge & skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives


pattern of specific & nonspecific responses an individual makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium & exceed its ability to cope


internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress

acute stress

transient state of arousal with typically clear onset & offset patterns/specific situation

chronic stress

continuous state of arousal in which individual perceives demands as greater that the inner & outer resources available for dealing with them

fight-or -flight response

sequence of internal activities triggered when an individual is faced with a threat/prepares the body for combat & struggle or for running away to safety/some researchers suggest this response is characteristic only of males

tend-and-befriend response

stressors prompt females to protect their offspring & join social groups to reduce vulnerability/some researchers suggest this response is characteristic only of females/Shelly Taylor-maybe

general adaptation syndrome

pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by any serious stressor. 1) alarm reaction-brief period of bodily arousal that prepares body for vigorous activity 2) stage of resistance-stage of moderate arousal when stressor is prolonged 3) stage of exhaustion-endure & resist further debilitating effects of prolonged stressors; exhaustion occurs when stressor is sufficiently long-lasting or intense

psychosomatic disorder

physical disorder aggravated by or attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other physiological causes

life-change unit(LCU)

in stress research, the measure of stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period

post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)

anxiety disorder characterized by persistent re-experience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociation flashbacks/sufferers experience emotional numbing in relation to everyday events & feelings of alienation from other people/develops in response to war, rapes, life-threatening events, severe injury, natural disasters


process of dealing with internal or external demands perceived to be threatening or overwhelming

stress moderator variable

variable that changes the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction

anticipatory coping

efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate imbalance between perceived demands & available resources. 1)problem-related coping-confront the problem directly (controllable stressors) 2)emotion-focused coping-lessen the discomfort associated with the stress(uncontrollable stressors)

perceived control

belief that one has the ability to make a difference the course or consequences of some event or experience

social support

resources, including material aid, socioemotional support, & informational aid, provided by others to help a person cope with stress

health psychology

field of psychology devoted to understanding the way people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill & the ways they respond when they become ill


general condition of soundness & vigor of body & mind

biophysical model

model of health & illness that suggests links among the nervous system, immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, & environmental domains of health


optimal health, incorporating the ability to function fully & actively over the physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social, & environmental domains of health


self-regulatory by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological processes

Type A behavior pattern

complex pattern of behavior & emotions that includes being excessively competitive, aggressive, impatient, time urgent, & hostile/highly competitive & ambitious; often are loners/higher risk for
health problems

Type B behavior pattern

individuals have less competitive, less aggressive, less hostile patterns of behavior & emotion

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