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Stupid Biology Final Exam.
Terms in this set (25)
How is it that cows can eat and extract nutrients from hay while Jen Luc and Marie can't?
Because the cow has four chambered stomachs, in one of those four chamber is bacteria that can digest cellulose. It is in their rumen.
It frees up other nutrients to be extracted from plants also.
Human Secum is small and doesnt do much.
Do not eat hay!!!
How does the digestive system of cows differ from humans?
(Refer to Question 1)
Cows -are rumens, they have a four-chambered stomach. Enlarged Secum.
Humans -have one chamber.
-We do not house bacteria in our stomach that digest cellulose.
-Our Secum is smaller.
Is the relationship between the cow and the bacteria in its rumen best considered parasitic, predatory, or mutualistic?
It is Mutualistic.
What features of the small intestine allow large animals to absorb sufficient nutrition?
The large surface area, there is a lot of wall of the small intestine that nutrition can be absorbed through.
How are the nutrients transported from the intestine to the cows hooves?
Through the bloodstream.
Gets to the Capillaries in the cows hoof, the nutrients transport into the tissues by diffusion and active transport.
Pregnant Cow named Francine
How are nutrients transplanted from the mothers intestine to the fetal calf?
What organs are involved in the process?
The nutrients will travel between them via placenta. The nutrients and oxygen are transported across there.
7) The fetal calf also needs oxygen and needs to get rid of carbon dioxide. What organ systems in the cow and the calf are needed to supply the calf with oxygen and remove from the calf carbon dioxide?
So waste products from the fetal calf travel by the capillaries from the internal bloodstream into the placenta by diffusion.
Francine has to have lungs that take in oxygen and dispel carbon dioxide.
The oxygen from the lungs travels through the circulatory system.
From left to right.
8) How are metabolic wastes produced
9)How does the cow remove nitrogen wastes from its bloodstream? What hormone regulates this process?
Used as sources of stored energy, the nitrogen becomes ammonia and it needs to be removed from the bloodstream with the Kidneys.
Ammonia is converted into urea and removed from bloodstream by kidneys.
Antiduiretic hormone from the posterior antuitary regulates urine excretion.
10) Speaking of Nitrogen wastes, where did all that nitrogen come from? and what macromolecules necessary for life include nitrogen?
We get Nitrogen from the plants we eat.
Proteins are made of amino acids which contain Nitrogen.
DNA, RNA, some lipids and some carbohydrates contain Nitrogen.
e.g Proteins and Nucleic acids.
Where does grass get its nitrogen?
Decomposing animals and plants.
Nitrogen in soil can be convert into nitrogen gas.
11) How do catfish respire?
What else to gills do?
a)They have counter current exchange.
Water passes through the gills into the respiratory system.
The water goes over the gills, oxygen goes into the gills via diffusion.
b) Nitrogenous waste e.g. Ammonia is secreted through Gills.
-Carbon Dioxide leaves the fish through its Gills.
12) When catfish respire, how is oxygen transported to the other tissues of the fish?
Oxygen comes into the bloodstream by diffusion and then to the rest of the fish by the circulatory system.
Fish have a heart with two chambers, a atrium and a ventricle so the atrium fills passively by being relaxed then the atrium contracts to fill the ventricle to its maximum capacity then the ventricle contracts and pumps the blood to the arteries to the capillaries, then the nutrients and oxygen travels via diffusion.
The blood is returned to the heart by the veins (low pressure vessels).
Arteries lead out. (high pressure vessels).
(From heart to gills to arteries to capillaries to viens to heart.)
Humans differ because they have two atriums and two ventricles.
13) If a rainstorm washes a large amount of cow dung into the pond, how could that affect the amount of oxygen available for the catfish?
Cow dung would act as a fertilizer and would be high in nitrates.
Excess nutrients will increase the bacteria and algae which would use oxygen, they deplete the fertilizer and use oxygen rapidly as they decompose.
Bacteria can survive on less oxygen that aquatic life.
14) An ospey flies to the farm and snatches one of the catfish and carries the fish to its nest. Flight requires a high metabolism of the osprey differ form that of the catfish?
A sac system.
Nuero-sac system recycles the breath and refreshes it after every second cycle.
When a bird breathes in air fills the anterior and posterior air sac, the sac then contracts to move the air one way through the lungs.
When the bird exhales the air from the back air sac goes out and the air from the lungs go to the front air sac.
All of the air is completely removed from the lungs.
Then the bird fully replaces the air.
Their lungs are rigid.
When our lungs expand our diaphragm moves down and the lisuction forces the lungs to get bigger, when you are relaxed your lungs will be contracted because they are elastic.
15) At the nest the osprey eats the fish. Poor fish. Ospreys don't have teeth. How else does their digestive system differ from that of humans?
They have a crop, this is a loose sac in the throat that serves as storage for food for later consumption.
A bird's stomach has two parts:
The first part is the glandular stomach or proventriculus, which produces enzymes, acids, and mucus that begin the process of digestion.
The second part is the muscular stomach, or gizzard. There are no digestive glands in the gizzard, and in birds of prey, it serves as a filter, holding back insoluble items such as bones, fur, teeth and feathers.
16) Watching the Osprey eat its meal are two osprey chicks. When they see their mother they open their mouths and beg for food. How could you find out whether this behavior was innate or learned?
17) Is her behavior a fixed action pattern, a behavior learnt from imitation or something else?
It is not a fixed action pattern because it is not a fixed process.
-No sign stimulus.
-They do not have to learn to cry for food.
It is a process of associative learning.
18) What hormonal mechanisms regulate the amount of glucose in Justine's blood stream?
If blood glucose levels are low glucagon is released by the pancreas.
If blood sugar is too high insulin is released.
Example of homeostasis.
19) If Marc has a viral infection, what might his B-cells and T-cells be doing to fight infection? What does a B-cell do? What does a T-cell do?
Both are cells of the adaptive immune response.
B-Cells = The humoral immune response.
-Develops in bone marrow.
-Involves the secretion of free-floating antibodies by B-Cells into the blood and lymph.
T-Cells = Cell-mediated immune response, and aid the humoral immune response.
-Develops in the thymus.
-Results in the action of defensive cells, in contrast to the action of free-floating defensive antibody cells of the humoral immune response.
T-cells attack virus or bacteria infected cells, promote phagocytosis, and stimulate B-Cells to produce antibodies.
20) How does Jean Luc's wailing-infant-detection-system (ear) work?
The sound frequency sends sound waves that vibrate through the ear drum and ear canals.
21) What is a Synapse?
It is a connection between nerve cells consisting of a small gap where by an electrical charge passes a chemical or electrical signal.
Chemical signals -Neurotransmitters.
22) How does the Synapse work in regard to Neurotransmitters, receptors for neurotransmitters, sodium channels and chloride channels?
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that send signals from one nerve to the other.
In between the axon and dendtrite is a synapse, an action potential travels through one neuron toward the receptors which are ligand-gated ion channels.
Then allows the charge to go across the membrane.
23) What navigation system do birds use? If a hurricane blows an osprey off course, what navigation system would allow the bird to find its way to where it was going?
When birds undergo migration they would use a cognitive map return to home environments after a longer time period and will use other indicators to find their nest.
24) Marie is wondering whether she will have twins the next time round. How does one get twins? What are the two ways? How do they differ?
Movement of molecules from High Concentration to Low Concentration.
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