The Ultimate Study Guide for U.S. History
Terms in this set (65)
Why was Virginia founded?
Economical buisness venture meant to make money for the investors who supported the colony.
What was the most important crop in Virginia?
How did the Virginians get along with the Powhatan indians?
they did not like it because the culverts were catholic which meant religious freedom. it was also economic competition
First representative democracy in Virginia
House of Burgesses
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Why was New England Founded?
Family and religious freedom
King Phillips War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Government in New England Colony
had to be church members, ministers often had a great deal of power and only male church members could vote
Why was Rhode Island Founded?
Political/ Religion- Everyone should have right to practice any religion. Goverment and the church of england should be seperated.
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress
A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king
New York Colony
Was created when James, the duke of York, was given the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. In 1664, Nicolls went to New Amsterdam and received a surrender from its governor. The Articles of Capitulation allowed the British to have New Amsterdam as long as none of the Dutch settlers were removed. This colony had a natural harbor and became a substantial trading center.
New Jersey Colony
colony with a diverse population, including Dutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scots, Territory given to Sir John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Territory was diverse religiously and ethnically.
Founder: William Penn; Settlers: English Quakers and other Europeans; Climate: Cold winters and hot humid summers; Occupations: Farming, merchants, and tradesmen, lumber and shipbuilding; Government: Self-Governing
1638 Colonizer-Corporate Colony main people/events- First, under the Dutch, Swedish, and finally under British control. William Penn
a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became the city now known as New York City.
Which religious group is most affiliated with Pennsylvania?
Why did the french settle Quebec?
To obtain control of the fur trade
How did geography affect the colonies?
mountains and seas separate them from other lands. trading routes founded
the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
What role did the colonies play in British Mercantilism?
the colonies provided more supplies for the mother country to sell
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
What led to the growth of slavery in the United States?
The Middle passage, demand for goods, and low supply. New country= plenty of work to do
Movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
The Great Awakening
This was a major religious revival in the colonies, which began in the 1730's with its leader being Jonathan Edwards.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763)- a war between England, France, and their Native American allies for control of North America. The English won the war and gained large area of North American from the French. The war did not affect Georgia directly but the Georgia colony gained land after the conclusion of the conflict.
Result of French and Indian War
Etablished english domanice brought ameria in close contact with british authority raised underlying tenisons rearranged global power. US and British worked together.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Reaction of Proclamation of 1763
colonists mad. they wanted benefits of that land and GB denied that right. represented threat to liberties and representative government
(1765) Part of Grenville's plan to defray the cost of maintaining the British army along the American frontier. Revenue stamps were attached to printed matter and legal documents, newspapers, and insurance papers etc. For the colonists the main issue was "no taxation without representation." Public protests increased until it was repealed in 1766. Colonists were unhappy and mad
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Ardent spirits who enforced nonimportation agreements. They often became violent, such as employing the technique of tar-and-feathering on unpopular officials.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
What was the thesis of Paine's Common Sense?
talked about trend toward corruption in public affairs & the wild financial speculation that produced both great poverty and great wealth
Declaration of Independence
1776, Richard Henry Lee of VA intro'ed a resolution declaring the colonies to be independent; Thomas Jefferson listed specific grievances against George III's government and expressed basic principles that justified revolution; adopted July 2nd by Congressed but issued July 4th
A passage or speech which introduces another longer passage or speech
French involvement in Revolutionary War
France cared more about the benefits of France itself than Catholicism→Joined side of the Protestants against the Hapsburg family who was Catholic → Neither side possessed the power to knock out the other so the fighting dragged on→ French intervention provokes Spain and all of Europe to engage in war. Convinced to help by Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin
Why was Washington still considered A good leader?
1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence. led colonists to victory
Crossing of Delaware
Washington leads American toops back to attack camps at Trenton and Princeton. Decisive american victory
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of YorkTown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Best remembered as one of the leading British Generals in The American Revolutionary War. His 1781 defeat by a combined American-French force at the Siege of Yorktown is generally considered to de-facto end of war, as a bulk of British troops surrendered to him.
Treaty of Paris 1783
..., Under this agreement, the British recognized the United States as an independent nation, the borders of the new nation extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and the southern border stopped at Florida, which was returned to Spain. The west of the Mississippi River also went to Spain.
A Series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
"The supreme law of the land." Written in 1787 at the constitutional convention in Philadelphia, ratified in 1788, amended 27 times (first 10= bill of rights), creates 3 branches of national government, oldest written constitution that is still in use, and it was made because the government set up by the articles of confederation was too weak. Written by James Madison and TJ
A form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments.
Checks and Balance
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power. ex: executive branch over judicial
Ratification of Constitution
After the Constitution was signed, it had to be approved by at least 9 states in order to go into effect.
The Great Compromise
A state's representation in the House of Representation would be based on population; Two senators for each state; all bills would originate in the house; direct taxes on states were to be assessed according to population
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
What did the constitution say about slavery?
Life, liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. although slavery still continued.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
George Washington's Farewell Address
GW stated that the nation shouldn't by any means split up or divide (avoid political parties) and that they shouldn't get involved with foreign affairs should promote a neutral stance. Not to pick between Britain and France (even though that didn't happen)
What was U.S's involvement in Napoleonic wars?
Democrat and Republican were some of first. started by different ideas of govt.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
War of 1812
(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act
A historic canal that connects the Hudson River at Albany in eastern New York with the Niagara River and the Great Lakes. It opened in 1825.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
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The Ultimate Study Guide for U.S. History
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