Test Review Chapters 12-15
Terms in this set (61)
end of the Qin-Han Period
Non-Chinese nomads ruled much of China and a foreign religion, Buddhism, eclipsed Confucian teachings.
order of dynasties
Sui, Tang, Song
During the fall of the Han, the Great Wall
became ineffective as a barrier to invasion, because it was held by many small kingdoms.
made possible the rapid revival under the Tang
the preservation in the many kingdoms of the Confucian traditions that had been central to Chinese civilization
established Sui dynasty
support of which was most critical to the reunification of China under the Sui
nomadic warrior elite
Under the first Sui emperor
ever-ready granaries were created to relieve the threat of famine.
Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects led to
the downfall of the second Sui emperor and the collapse of the dynasty.
Li Yuan was
the Duke of Tang, founder of the new dynasty.
attitude of the Tang emperors toward the Confucian scholar-gentry
The Tang supported the resuscitation of the Confucian scholar-gentry, often at the expense of the aristocracy.
Ministry of Rites was responsible for
administration of the Confucian examination system.
title reserved for those who passed the most difficult exams on all of Chinese literature
entry into the Chinese bureaucracy
Although a higher percentage of candidates received office through the examination system than during the Han dynasty, birth continued to be important in securing high office.
Pure Land Buddhism
Tang dynasty's attitude toward Buddhism
Although Empress Wu attempted to have Buddhism recognized as the official religion of the state, later emperors persecuted Buddhism as an economic threat to the state.
a result of imperial suppression
Buddhism survived in a reduced state without much political influence.
an imperial concubine who exerted great influence on a Tang emperor and introduced many of her relatives into the imperial government.
relative weakness of Song Empire
The military was subordinated to the civilian administrators of the scholar-gentry, leaving the dynasty vulnerable to nomadic dynasties on the frontier.
Under the Song, the scholar-gentry
continued its ascent over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals.
the most prominent of the neo-Confucians during the Song era.
The growing influence of neo-Confucianism in China during the Tang-Song era
led to reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions.
Song prime minister in the 1070s and 1080s attempted to introduce reforms based on the Legalist school of Confucianism
invading group caused the flight of the Song from northern China
nature spirits of Japan
central purpose of the Taika reforms in Japan
to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor
When the emperor moved his government from Nara to Heian
the aristocracy took over most of the positions in the central government
The Tale of Genji described
the life at the imperial court at Heian.
Japanese family that dominated the imperial court
warrior leaders in the tenth century who controlled provincial areas of Japan from small fortresses.
mounted troops who served the provincial military elite.
nature of warfare among the bushi
Battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare.
The rise of the samurai in provincial Japanese society
reduced peasants to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.
settled the power struggle between the Taira and Minamoto families.
The end of the Gempei wars signaled the beginning of
the Japanese feudal age.
The Ashikaga Shoguns who succeeded the Minamoto government at Kamakura
drove the emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino and set up a puppet emperor in his place.
The Korean bureaucracy
admitted members almost exclusively by birth rather than test scores.
One of the major reasons for the Chinese failure to assimilate the Vietnamese was
the lack of impact of Chinese cultural imports on the Vietnamese peasantry.
great leader of the Mongols prior to Chinggis Khan
military units within the Mongol armies.
favorite tactic on the field of battle was frequently employed by Chinggis Khan's troops
pretended flight to draw the enemy out followed by heavy cavalry attacks on the flanks
the new capital constructed by Chinggis Khan for his empire.
Following the death of Chinggis Khan, who succeeded him as Khagan of the Mongols
at the time of the Mongol invasion, Russia
was divided into numerous petty kingdoms centered on trading cities.
as a result of the Mongol invasion, Moscow
used its position as collector of tribute for the Mongols and the seat of Russian Orthodoxy to emerge as the political leader of Russia.
The Mongol conquest of Russia is often associated with
the desire of Russian princes to centralize their control and minimize the limitations placed on their power by the landed nobility.
In addition to the destruction of the Abbasid political capital at Baghdad and the weakening of the Muslim military strength, what significant impact did the Mongol conquest have on the Islamic heartland
The destruction of cities from central Asia to the shores of the Mediterranean devastated the focal points of Islamic civilization.
The Mongols were defeated by the Mameluk dynasty of Egypt at the battle of
The founder of the Yuan dynasty in China was
In order to reduce the power of the scholar-gentry in China, the Yuan
refused to reinstate the examination system for the civil service.
the founder of the Ming dynasty
political state of the Middle East following the fall of the Abbasid Empire and the withdrawal of the Mongols
The emerging Ottoman Empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the Byzantine corner.
The Ottoman Empire gained greater territorial influence than ever possessed by the Arabic dynasties in
Turkish rulers did not promote maritime trade as vigorously as had the Arabs
Chinese dynasty was associated briefly with the establishment of state-sponsored international commerce
cessation of state-sponsored trade in China
In Chinese terms, it was the brief trading flurry that was unusual, not its cessation.
disease that accounted for the enormous loss of life in the fourteenth century
source of Western dynamism
growth of cities and urban economies
greater interest in nature and the things of this world
allowed Italy to emerge as center of Renaissance
Italy had closer contacts with foreign scholars, particularly those in late Byzantium.
West began exploration of trade routes because
Technological barriers that had been a problem previously were overcome.
common element of the Polynesian societies of Hawaii and New Zealand
lack of metallurgy