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107 terms

Personality

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Sigmund Freud
Founder of the Psychoanalytic Theory
Eros (Life) Thanatos (Death)
Two Drives that Shape Behavior according to the Psychoanalytic Theory
Aggression
Thanatos is characterized in?
Sex, Love
Eros is characterized in?
Id, Ego, Superego
Three Aspects of Human Personality
(according to Freud)
Pleasure Principle
The Id operates according to the?
Instant Gratification
Pleasure principle is synonymous with?
Libido
The psychic energy that drives personality
Reality Principle
The Ego Operates in accordance with the?
Delayed Gratification
The reality principle is synonymous with?
Satisfy and control the Id
Function of the Ego
Super-Ego
Consists of an ego-ideal and the conscience
Conscience
Tells how we should behave
Ego- Ideal
Our ideal self
Erogenous Zones, Sigmund Freud
___________ are zones of Psychosexual development according to ___________.
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Stages of Psychosexual Development
(in order)
Stopping Breastfeeding
Primary conflict at the Oral Stage is
Fixation
Not resolving a psychosexual conflict at an early age will result in a halt in development, and a ___________ at the given stage.
Oral Aggresion
The fixation associated with the oral stage results in
dependent
Having an orally _________ fixation results in a person being gullible
Toilet Training
Primary conflict at the Anal Stage?
Anal Retentive/Expulsive
A fixation at the Anal stage will result in a person being
Oedipus Complex
The conflict for BOYS during the Phallic Stage is the
Elektra Complex
The conflict for GIRLS during the Phallic Stage is the
Identification with the Father
The result of a BOY avoiding fixation at the Phallic Stage is
Identification with the Mother
The result of a GIRL avoiding fixation at the Phallic Stage is
Latency
No sexual feelings arise during the __________ stage.
Genital, Adolescence
This stage begins at the the onset of ___________, and allows for the formation of complete human relationships.
Repression
The minds standard defense mechanism, avoid thinking about certain thoughts
Defense Mechanisms
How the ego copes with anxiety
Denial
This defense mechanism is also known as extreme repression, where certain thoughts cannot possibly exist.
Projection
This defense mechanism puts our own feelings/disagreeable qualities on to others
Reaction Formation
This defense mechanism causes us to react oppositely to a given stimuli
(We cannot kill our kid, so we show him alot of affection)
Adams, Homophobia
In a study by __________, _________ is thought to be a reaction formation to ones own homosexuality.
Regression
This defense mechanism converts us back to a younger self to avoid the issue
(Characteristic of whining, thumb sucking, and tantrums)
Rationalization
This defense mechanism explains away shortcomings to maintain self esteem
Displacement
This defense mechanism causes us to take out our anger on sources other than the primary stimuli
Identification
This defense mechanism helps us identify with the behavior of someone we feel is superior
Sublimation
This defense mechanism transfers unethical thoughts into positive actions
Karen Horney
Discovered women's gender anxiety comes from power envy not penis envy
Neo-Freudians, sex
________ Revised Freud's theories on the basis that they were too focused on _________
Carl Jung
Theorized on collective unconcious, archetypes, and extroversion and interversion
Alfred Adler
Theorized on the aspect that humans are constantly striving for superiority
drives
According to Adler, sense of inferiority __________ behavior
Karen Horney
Theorized that basic anxiety is a motivating factor for behavior
Collective Unconscious
There is a _______________ that spans across human history and culture according to Carl Jung
Archetype
Important aspects of human existence carried across history
Fairytales
Example of an Archetype
Dimensions of Personality
Extroversion and Introversion are ________________ in which a person is either sociable or anti-social
Maslow
This psychologist believed that personality can be described in two ways. Either there is deficiency orientation and growth orientation
Deficiency Orientation
Always searching for imperfection
Growth Orientation
Focused on growth
Self-Actualization
Drive to fill potential
Congruence
Not acting with ____________ leads to anxiety
Trait Theory
The belief that personality is made up of a combination of different traits
Gordon Allport
Believed there are 200 personality traits divided between central, secondary, and cardinal traits
Trait
Relatively stable predisposition to behave a certain way
Central Trait
Most Observable Traits
(according to Allport)
Secondary Trait
Not as constant as central trait
(according to Allport)
Cardinal Trait
Single dominant, defining trait
(according to Allport)
Cardinal Trait
Not everyone has a _________________.
Raymond Cattell
Used factor analysis to come up with 16 factors of personality, divided into source traits and surface traits
Source Trait
An underlying fundamental dimension of personality
(According to Cattell)
Surface Trait
Superficial Trait based on combination of Source Traits
(According to Cattell)
The Big Five
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
universal
The Big 5 are predominantly _________________
Openness
Relates to how open people are to new experiences
Conscientiousness
Relates to how reliable/organized a person is
Extraversion
Relates to how outgoing a person is
Agreeableness
Relates to a person's attitudes toward others
Neuroticism
Relates to a person's emotional stability
not
A person low in openness is ___________ open to new experiences
high
A person __________ in conscientiousness is likely to be professionally successful
High/Low
A person ________ in extraversion is likely to be sociable; A person _________ in extraversion is likely to be shy/passive
Low/High
A person _____________ in neuroticism is likely to be emotionally stable; a person ________ in neuroticism is likely to be emotionally instable
Hans Eysenck
Researcher that believed there are 3 dimensions to personality
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism
3 Dimensions to personality according to Eysenck
Extraversion
reflects internal level of arousal
(according to Eysenck)
Low, easily
_______ levels of arousal reflect a person is extremely sociable because that person is not ___________ aroused
(according to Eysenck)
Neuroticism
Reflects how an individuals mood changes
(according to Eysenck)
Psychoticism
reflects a person's impulse control
(according to Eysenck)
Low/High
A person with _________ levels of psychoticism is passive; a person with _____________ levels is impulsive
Jeffery Gray
Believed there are 2 dimensions to personality, the BAS/BIS
Behavior Activation System (BAS)
Activates Behavior in Extroverts
Behavior Inhibition Sytem (BIS)
Inhibits certain behavior in Introverts
Bandura, Rotter
2 Psychologists that focused on the Social Cognitive Aspect of Personality
Self-System
We act in a way that reinforces our perceived self-esteem
(Bandura)
Locus of Control
Either Internal or External- reflects our motives for certain behavior
(Rotter)
Expectancy
How much our decisions impact others
(Rotter)
Internal
Wanting to do well on in school because you want to have a good job is an example of an _____________ locus of control
External
Wanting to do well in school because you will get paid money to do so is an example of an ___________ locus of control
Projective Tests
Project Personality into Answer
Rorschach Ink Blot Test
A Projective Test that requires the subject to analyze random ink images
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A Projective Test that requires the subject to analyze a definite, wordless image
not
Projective Tests are ________ very reliable
MMPI-2
Most reliable Self Report Test
MMPI-2
A self report test that attempts to identify different psychological disorders
NEO-PI
The Big 5 Inventory
TAT
The ________________ is more valid than the Rorschac Ink Blot Test
Congruence
The Compliance between the ego ideal and the actual self
Reticular Formation
The part of the brain that regulates arousal
(Eysenck)
Factor Analysis
Sorting trait terms into smaller factors
Self-Report
Asks a series of questions that ask people to indicate which statements accurately describe their own behavior/mental state
Humanists
These psychologists believe in the self-actualizing tendency
Existential Approach
Regards personality as governed by an individuals ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death
Rollo May, Victor Frankl
Two examples of Existential Psychologists
Reciprocal Determinism, Bandura
A person's behavior is determined by personal factors and social behaviors + experimenter