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Psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.

Medical model

psychological disorders are sicknesses

Biopsychosocial perspective

behavior arises from the interaction of nature and nurture


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)

Neurotic disorders

able to think rationally and function socially

Psychotic Disorders

bizarre behavior and thinking, severely debilitating

Anxiety disorders

distressing and persistent

4 Criteria of Psychological Disorders

behavior is: A typical, disturbing, maladaptive (harmful), unjustifiable

Types of Anxiety disorders

Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Phobic Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Types of Dissociative disorders

Dissociative fugue, Dissociative amnesia, Dissociative Identity Disorder

Types of Mood disorders

Major depression, Bipolar disorder

Somatoform Disorders

Conversion disorder, Hysterical paralysis


Split mind

Schizophrenia symptoms

disorganized thinking, delusion (beliefs), disturbed perceptions (hallucinations), inappropiate emotions and gestures




disturbed perceptions


Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts


in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

Free Association

in psychoanalysis, the patients free talk saying everything that comes to mind


in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.


in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

Humanistic Therapy

emphasized people's inherent potential for self fulfillment - looks at present/future, consciousness, responsibility of actions, and personal grwoth

Person-centered Therapy (client-centered)

uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.

Carl Rogers

Humanistic Therapy

Active Listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy

Unconditional Positive Regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.


an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.


an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

Major Depression

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

Bipolar Disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience


a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Behavior Therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.


a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.

Systematic desensitization

a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.

Aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol).

Token economy

an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.

Cognitive Therapy

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

Rational-Emotive therapy

Activating event > Beliefs > consequences

Group and family therapy

therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.

Dissociative Amnesia

selective loss of memory, triggered by extreme sterss

Dissociatve Fugue

Flight and forgetting

Conversion disorder

Freud's theory that anxiety is onverted to specific paralysis

Hysterical paralysis

conversion symptom

Personality Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

Gestalt Therapy


Operant Conditioning

stimulus is presented after behavior

Albert Ellis

assumes that "no one and nothing is supreme," that "self-gratification" should be encouraged, and that "unequivocal love, commitment, service, to any interpersonal commitment, especially marriage, leads to harmful consequences

Aaron Beck

analyzed the dreams of people with depression, he found recurring negative themes of loss, rejection, and abandonment that extended into their waking thoughts

Effectiveness of psychotherapy



a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.

Hans Eysenck

developed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire


hope for demoralized people; a new perspective on oneself and the world; and an empathic, trusting, caring relationship.

Biomedical therapies

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.


the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.


surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.


a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.

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