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19 terms


definition of the situation
An agreement with others about "what is going on" in a given circumstance. This consensus allows us to coordinate our actions with those of others and realize goals.
Howard Becker
developed foundations for the labeling theory
labeling theory
deviance is not inherent to act, but focuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen a deviant from cultural norms
master status
a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society
aligning actions
efforts to make ones behavior seem sensible and reasonable when it contradicts culturally accepted values
ex: verbal techniques that people use when they talk about problematic behaviors
feeling rules
the types of feeling that people except in certain situations
ex: when you get married you are expected to be happy
surface acting
feelings that someone learns and performs for public display. We do this when our feelings contradict the feelings that we are "suppose" to express in public
Ex: being sad at a funeral, even if you are really happy
a social process in which constraints and shapes the acts of another by "casting" that person into a particular role. When one is labeled as a particular character he/she may feel compelled to uphold that role
ex: a father states that a mother is the nurturing one in order to tend to the children
the capacity of one person to achieve purposes without others people's consent and despite opposition
Ex: parent/child relationship
awareness context
the total combination of what participants in a situation know about one another's identities and intention
Ex: when someone cheats on you, you lack the knowledge of knowing you are being deceived. You cant act in your best interest because you don't realize you are being deceived
conventional roles
we interact in standardized known and labeled positions
ex: physicians, teachers, lawyers, popo
interpersonal roles
Managerial roles that involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature.
self-fulfilling prophecies
predictions that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true
ex: going into a game saying yo are going to lose, then you lose
an image or picture that people maintain with respect to a particular role, situation, person or object that organizes their knowledge of it
cognitive theories and inf. Neuritistics
decisions are based on rules used to reduce the complexity of situations (making decisions about people based on stereotypes)
we assume that an event has cause and determine how to act by first establishing the cause
means and ends
we follow regular procedures in order to achieve our goals
normative standards
we use our knowledge of social norms to evaluate other people's conduct
substantive congruency
occurs when we regard another persons acts as sensible in terms of their own understanding of the situation