LIT2020 Kimball FSU final

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Terms in this set (...)

Metaphor
a type of figurative language in which a statement is made that says that one thing is something else but, literally, it is not
denotation
the exact meaning of a word, without the feelings or suggestions that the word may imply. Dictionary definition
Connotation
an association that comes along with a particular word. Relate not to a word's actual meaning but rather to the ideas or qualities that are implied by that word
Simile
a type of figurative language that makes a comparison between two otherwise unalike objects or ideas by connecting them with the words "like" or "as."
Oxymoron
Using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level. Ex: jumbo shrimp
Synesthesia
A rhetorical trope involving shifts in imagery or sensory metaphors. It involves taking one type of sensory input (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste) and combining it with another separate sense in what seems an impossible way
Vernacular
The everyday or common language of a geographic area or the native language of commoners in a country
Chronic Tension
continuous tension throughout story, deeper problem
Exposition
important background information within a story, beginning of the plot diagram
Static Characters
undergoes little to no change
Climax
highest or most intense point in the development of the resolution
Flashback
Interruption of the chronological (time) order to present something that occurred before the beginning of the story
Foreshadowing
Writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Appears at the beginning of a story or a chapter and helps the reader develop expectations about the coming events in a story
Flash Forward
Plot goes ahead of time i.e. a scene that interrupts and takes the narrative forward in time from the current time in a story.
Magical realism
encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, share in common an acceptance of magic in the rational world
Denouement
final outcome of the story, occurs after the climax of the plot and the falling action
Omniscent
method of storytelling in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the story
First Person
The use of I, me, we and other first-person pronouns to relate the thoughts, experiences, and observations of a narrator in a work of fiction (a short story or novel) or nonfiction (an essay, memoir, or autobiography).
First Person Advantages
provide logic for characters choices, audience spends a lot of time in characters brain so they relate more to them, mystery and suspense
First Person Disadvantages
hard to describe the protagonist, perspective and perceptions are limited, less able to see the grand scope of things
Third Person
form of storytelling in which a narrator relates all action in third person, using third person pronouns such as "he" or "she."
Third Person Advantages
the amount of info you give the audience is completely up to you; multiple characters perspective
Third Person Disadvantages
hard to convey internal thoughts; feel obligated to give more info; harder to connect with the characters
Gender Privilege
term for social, economic, and political advantages or rights that are made available to someone solely on the basis of their sex
Class Privilege
caused by: how you are raised, where you're born, the US gives more privileges than other countries
Race Privilege
White privilege is societal privileges that benefit white people in western countries beyond what is commonly experienced by the non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances.
Flat Character
defined by only one or two traits; show few emotions; stereotype or stock characters; don't grow or change
Round Character
complex; show a range of emotion; display strengths and weaknesses; change over the course of the story
Dynamic Character
characters who change and grow as plot develops
Static Character
characters who remain the same
Plot
Chronic vs. Acute Tension
The chronic tension is the deeper problem that exists between the characters, the acute tension (which always relates back to the chronic tension) is the minor problem that sparks the story
Pacing
the way the author delivers the action in his work. It is the rhythm and speed with which the plot unfolds
Native American Lit
Stories are meant to be read aloud
Didn't used to be considered real literature because the stories were oral and not in print
There aren't always English words for the Native American words, so some stuff (like rhythm) gets lost in translation
Sherman Alexie, Leslie Silko
End in tragedy, revenge, or forgiveness
Gothic American Lit
Southerners showed as monsters or the heroic knight
Defining feature is cast of off kilter characters (broken bodies, freakishness, outsider)
Often end in revenge
Caribbean Lit
Using Spanish words bring in the culture naturally
Krik? Krak! The call for someone to tell a story and the reply of a story, joke, or riddle
Middle Eastern Lit
Masculinity and nationality are big themes in these stories
Latin American Lit
El Boom: authors would publish a lot, then disappear, then publish again, then disappear
Importing novels to colonial Spanish America was prohibited
History and fiction became united
The true account of the conquest of New Spain (1580) seen as first Spanish American novel
The itching parrot (1816) considered as the first Latin American novel
Used novels to speak out, preach, and educate the emerging people
Realism didn't work well in Latin America
Magical realism made people see the familiar with new eyes
Novels required the readers to organize the narrative themself
Speculative Fiction
Genre encompassing supernatural, fantastical, or futuristic elements but is set in the real world
Use supernatural elements, criticize reality, complex and intriguing issues, accessible to a broad readership, and hint at multiple themes
1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, "A Christmas Tree and a Wedding"
a. Was arrested, joined a Utopian movement, and wrote countless stories and novels exploring class differences (mid 1800s Russia)
b. A man goes to a Christmas party and observes a rich girl and a poor boy playing together. A middle aged man approaches and talks to himself about how pretty the girl is and how she'll make a good wife. He then yells at the kids for playing together since the boy is poor. 10 years later the narrator goes to a wedding and it's the old man and the little girl getting married and she looks unhappy.
2. John Cheever, "The Death of Justina"
a. Struggled with alcoholism, American novelist, mid 1900s
b. The narrator is an alcoholic who doesn't like his job. Justina dies on his couch but when he calls the medical examiner he says no one can die in his district of land. He has to force the mayor to sign a paper saying its ok for her to have died there and for the examiner to move the body. The narrator quits his job.
3. Ambrose Bierce, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,"
a. American author, late 1800s, realism movement, was in union army for civil war
b. American Civil War story about Farquhar who is about to be executed for trying to burn down the bridge. A flashback occurs that tells how and why he is being hung and that he was tricked in to the mission. He loses consciousness and then is able to escape after falling into the river. But it turns out he was actually still executed and died.
4. George Eliot, "Brother Jacob,"
a. Used a mans name to publish, English novelist of the Victorian Era (1800s)
b. David wants to become a confectioner, tricks his slow brother Jacob and steals his mother's life savings and he vanishes. Then David moves to a new town, changes his name, starts a new life and is about to marry a rich girl until Jacob comes and ruins it.
5. Edgar Allan Poe, "The Murders in the Rue Morgue,"
a. Struggled with alcoholism and died mysteriously, American author, horror stories, American romantic Movement, debt due to gambling, got expelled from west point, early 1800s
b. A woman and daughter are murdered; the detectives can't solve it, and arrest the wrong man, Le Bon. But Dupin figures it out by reading the newspapers and investigating. It was actually a man's pet orangutan that did it.
6. Robert Louis Stevenson, "The Body Snatcher,"
a. Scottish novelist, late 1800s, Victorian Era
b. MacFarlane and Fettes both collected bodies for dissection for their professor. They figured out that the guys who sold them, murdered people. They meet a guy named Gray; MacFarlane kills him and uses his body for dissection. When they go to dig up a body and carry it back to town; the body was originally female but during the travel they realized it was now a man's body, specifically Gray's.
7. Italo Calvino, "The Garden of Stubborn Cats,"
a. Italian author, 1900s, post modernism
b. City of cats and city of men exist inside each other but aren't the same. A cat steals a fish from Marcovaldo and runs away with it. He follows the cat to an abandon house swarming in cats. Town's people explain to him that this is the only place left for the cats to live and they keep Marchesa prisoner there. Marchesa then dies and the lot is sold and they try to build an apartment on it but the cats keep getting in the way.
8. Nikolai Gogol, "The Nose,"
a. Russian author of Ukrainian ethnicity, early 1800s
b. A man finds a nose in his bread and throws it into the river. Then Kovalev realizes his nose is gone and then it appears all over town dressed up as other people. He gets the nose but it wont stick to his face; he thinks it's his mother in law doing it. 2 weeks later he wakes up and it is back.
9. Anton Chekhov, "The Lady with the Dog,"
a. Russian author, medical doctor, birth of early modernism in the theater, late 1800s
b. Gurov is in Yalta and sees Anna with a dog. They are both married but he cheats all the time. Once home, Gurov realizes he is no longer content with his life in Moscow. He goes to visit Anna and confesses his love for her. Anna feels guilty about their affair while Gurov doesn't care. They fell in love with each other but are each trapped in marriages to other people.
10. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, "The Yellow Wallpaper,"
a. Wrote feminist stories where characters had affairs, American author, early 1900s
b. A woman's husband diagnoses her with temporary depression and tries to cure her with the rest cure. The wallpaper in her room fascinates her and she eventually thinks a woman is trapped inside. She has a mental breakdown and rips the paper off, John faints when he sees her
11. Tillie Olsen, "I Stand Here Ironing,"
a. American writer, 1900s, first generation American feminist
b. The mom is ironing while talking to someone on the phone who tells her that her oldest daughter, Emily, needs assistance. The narrator thinks of all the things she should've done that can't be altered now. They moved a lot and Emily was labeled a "slow learner" in school. Emily was good at performing and became very talented but due to lack of money and encouragement her potential was unfulfilled. The narrator says that Emily will be fine as she is and hopes she will view herself as a valuable creation.
12. Kate Chopin, "The Maid of Saint Phillipe,"
a. American author, forerunner of feminist authors, early 1900s
b. Marianne was a tall, strong, and manly girl who took care of her father since her mother passed away. She was very independent but stayed with her father until he died. Then after his death she went with Captain Vaurdy to join the Cherokee Indians instead of marrying a European man and having to do all the domestic stuff she spent her whole life doing for her father.
13. Doris May Lessing, "To Room Nineteen,"
a. British author, 1900s
b. Begins with saying the marriage was based in intelligence and their intelligence failed. Susan and Matthew marry late in their 20s and raise 4 children. When the kids go to school, Susan becomes anxious and distant and space grows between her and Matthew, who were having affairs. She then rents a hotel room in town to get some alone time and just relax each day. Her husband assumes she is having an affair and tracks her down. Instead of telling him the truth she says she is and then kills herself in the hotel room the next day.
14. Raymond Carver, "The Idea,"
a. American author, 1900s, minimalism
b. The narrator spies on her neighbor who is spying on his wife while she undresses. She can tell how many times her neighbor has spied on his wife and her spying on him has gone on for 3 months. Ants start invading their house by the garbage can and invade the narrator's imagination too.
15. Ralph Ellison, "Battle Royal,"
a. Wrote the novel The Invisible Man, African American novelist, 1900s
b. The narrator remembers when his grandfather died and said that he was a traitor to his people (blacks). The narrator grows up to be smart and gives a good graduation speech. Rich white men ask him to give his speech but they make him box first. After they make him watch a white girl dance, box, and get electrocuted, they give him a brief case and a scholarship to an all black college.
16. Zora Neale Hurston, "Sweat,"
a. Went to Columbia, was a part of the Harlem Renaissance, African American author, early 1900s
b. Written in Ebonics. While Delia cleans clothes something that felt like a snake falls on her shoulder. It was Sykes bullwhip but she thought it was a snake. Sykes is having an affair. He brings a rattlesnake home and one day it escapes and Delia flees the house. Sykes comes home and the snake bites him, Delia listens to him suffer and doesn't help but just waits for him die.
17. Jean Toomer, "Box Seat,"
a. American poet, Harlem Renaissance, modernism, bisexual, early 1900s
b. Dan Moore, who is dating Muriel, a schoolteacher, tries to force himself on her: first physically, on the couch of her home, and then later by shouting to her in a crowded theater. It ends with Dan going out of the theater to fight with a man he has offended, but then wandering off, having forgotten his anger once he is out of doors.
18. James Baldwin, "Sonny's Blues,"
a. African American author, 1900s
b. Sonny goes to jail for heroin. Narrator writes to sonny in jail because his daughter died. Sonny stays with the narrator in Harlem. He enlists in the military. Sonny then invites the narrator to come see his jazz band perform. The narrator now understands Sonny's suffering.
19. Sherman Alexie, "The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven,"
a. Graduated from a reservation university; mixes the truth and her own experiences with fiction; uses pop culture alongside folklore
b. Narrator goes to a 7/11 late at night and plays tricks on the cashier to freak him out, he walks home eating his creamsicle and thinks about his ex girlfriend and his mother who nags him to get a job
20. Leslie Marmon Silko, "Yellow Woman,"
a. Born 1948, laguan pueblo writer
b. The story is written in 4 sections. The female narrator wakes up next to a man on a riverbank, the man says she must come with him and calls her "yellow woman". The narrator goes with him to a house in the mountains, when they go to sell meat they run into a rancher and the man kills him. She then returns home.
21. Louise Erdrich, "American Horse,"
a. Significant writer of the second wave of the Native American renaissance. Attended Dartmouth and John Hopkins
b. Albertine is hiding in Uncle Lawrence's house with Buddy because social workers want to take him away. Harmony sees them hiding in the shed but Albertine attacks him, but then she gets knocked out and they take Buddy away.
22. William Faulkner, "The Evening Sun,"
a. American author, 1900s, Nobel prize, Pulitzer prize, national book award
b. Nancy is a black woman who works for a white family as their cook. She cheated on her husband and got pregnant, so her husband, Jesus, leaves her and throughout the story she is afraid he is going to come back to hurt her.
23. Flannery O'Connor, "Good Country People,"
a. Dad died when he was young, catholic, died of lupus in 1964
b. Mrs. Hopewell and Mrs. Freeman gossip about their daughters together. Manley, a bible salesman, manipulates one daughter, Helga, and steals her wooden leg after seducing her
24. Junot Diaz, "The Sun, the Moon, the Stars,"
a. Dominican American Writer - Caribbean literature
b. Yunior cheats on his girlfriend, Magda, and then they take a trip together to Santo Domingo. Magda likes the big resort places and ignores yunior most of the time, while ynuior likes the small town where his family lives.
25. Edwidge Danticat, "Children of the Sea,"
a. Born in Haiti in 1969, raised by uncle and aunt, moved to US at 12, speaks Haitian Creole, French, and English
b. A boy escapes Haiti on a boat with others and sail to the US, the girl he loves stays back in Haiti with her family. They write letters to each other but since they never reach the other they are more like journals. The boy ends up drowning in the boat and dies and the girl moves to the country side with her family
26. Jean Rhys, "The Day They Burned the Books,"
a. Grew up in Dominican and then moved to England, disappeared for 20 years when she was an alcoholic and poor, 1960s
b. Eddie had an English father and a native mother; the narrator was an English girl who was Eddie's friend. Eddie's dad wanted him to learn about his English heritage but he refused, then when he died he tried to save some of the English books oh his dad's that his mom was going to burn.
27. Nawal El Saadawi, "Masculine Confession,"
a. Egyptian Muslim feminist writer, went to medical school, became a writer in her late 50s
b. A man is confessing to his mistress that he is in love with himself and continues to prove his masculinity through fights. Story is completely voice driven, doesn't go in detail about characters
28. Marjane Satrapi, "Moscow,"
a. Late 1900-now, Iranian born French, graphic illustrator and writer
b. Uncle comes back from prison, and tells his niece how he ended up there and how he hid in Russia and had a family there but ended up turning himself into the Iran officials
29. Ghassan Kanafani, "Men in the Sun,"
a. 1900s, Palestinian writer, killed by a bomb in his car
b. Palestine in the 1960s, Abul smuggles people over the board to try and feel manly. The men are in the water container hiding too long and over heat and die. Abul wonders why they didn't knock to be let out
30. Jorge Luis Borges, "Pierre Menard, Author of Quixote,"
a. Argentine writer, first written in Spanish, uses magical realism and post modernism, 1899-1986
b. Form of a review or critique of Pierre, a fictional 20th century French writer. Briefly listing of Pierre's work and then reviews Pierre's efforts to go beyond just a translation of "Don Quixote" and actually recreates it line by line from the original. Raises questions about nature of authorship and interpretation
31. Luisa Valenzuela, "Cat's Eye,"
a. Born in Argentina in 1938, post-boom novelist and short story writer, questions hierarchical social structures from a feminist perspective
b. Changes viewpoints and tenses. Starts a third person present tense and the only thing different was the eyes itself and that they glow. Then it changes to second person present tense in the format of the cat's eye. It then jumps back to third person present tense. Allows the reader to determine the outcome of the story.
32. Gabriel Garcia Marquez, "The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World,"
a. Founder of magical realism, grandfather raised him while parents were at pharmacy school
b. Large man washes up on a villages shore and they prepare a big funeral for him. His great size inspires them to try to better their own lives.
33. Kelly Link, "The Faery Handbag,"
a. Crosses Sci-Fi, fantasy, and main stream literature, currently publishing, speculative fiction
b. Narrator has a grandma whose purse is magical and holds a world for the people under the hill and the villagers. Her boyfriend finds out about the purse and hops into it. The grandma then dies but the narrator thinks part of her went into the bag to find Jake. Set in current day.
34. Virginia Woolf, "The Mark on the Wall,"
a. 1882-1941, bipolar and had anxiety which lead to her drowning, was a significant English literary novelist, modern author
b. Narrator remains unidentified and goes through her (?) thinking process in trying to decide what the black circle is on the wall. Abstract thinker who is against traditional values, takes a while to think it all through, just jumps from thought to thought, man comes in at the end and says there is a snail on the wall.
35. Phillip Roth, "Defender of the Faith,"
a. Was in the army, got national book award and the Pulitzer prize, published 1959
b. A trainee goes to Marx and asks him to come to the Friday service at the synagogue. Captain Barrette gets a letter about the non-kosher food. Grossbart asks Marx to go to Passover dinner at his aunts, Marx says to bring him a piece of fish back to validate they went. They brought back an egg roll, aka they didn't go. They all get assigned to the pacific besides Grossbart because its Karma for using his religion to leave.