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Chapter 15 practice questions
Terms in this set (89)
The fibrous layer of the eye contains the ___
Which extrinsic muscle of the eye is controlled via cranial nerve 4?
What gland produces tears?
Blood vessels of the eye are found in the middle of the _____
The area where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the ____
Which Statement is incorrect?
- cones have low sensitivity
- rods have low acuity
- cones occur mostly in the central retina
- there are 20 cones for every rod
there are 20 cones for every rod
Which of the following is true of myopia?
-the myopic eye can see far objects clearly
-the eyeball is too short
-light rays focus behind the retina
-concave lenses help correct this condition
concave lenses help correct this condition
Which of the following statements is true of vision?
- the cornea helps converge light rays onto the retina
- the lenses of the eye eill become more convex when focusing on far objects
- the light entering the eye is focused onto the optic disc
-the iris helps to focus on the lens
the cornea helps converge light rays on the retina
What occurs when looking at near objects?
the pupils constrict
The receptors for taste and smell are classified as
Taste transduction via H+ ions depolarizing the gustatory epithelial cells occurs with which taste sensation?
The sense of smell can ______
Elicit an emotional response, exhibit adaptation, trigger a fight ot flight
The sense of taste is carried back to the brain by all of the following cranial nerves except
The pharyngotympanic tube connects the throat with which part of the ear?
The spiral organ is found in the _____
What are the 3 ear bones of the auditory ossicles in order ?
Sound is transmitted from the tympanic membrane to the internal ear by the ____
Vibrations of the cochlear duct cause the cilia of the hair cells to bend against which membrane
Sensorineural deafness results from all of the following except :
Loss of hair cells
Damage to cochlear nerve
Damage to the ossicles
Damage to the auditory ossicles
damage to the ossicles
what does the lateral rectus do, and what cranial nerve controls it?
moves eye laterally, 6 (abducens)
what does the medial rectus do, and what cranial nerve controls it?
moves eye medially, CN 3 (oculomotor)
what does the superior rectus do, and what cranial nerve controls it?
elevates eye and turns it medially, 3
what does the inferior rectus do, and what cranial nerve controls it?
depresses eye and turns it medially, 3
what does the inferior oblique do, and what cranial nerve controls it?
elevates eye and turns it laterally, 3
what does the superior oblique do and what cranial nerve controls it?
depresses eye and turns it laterally, 4 (trochlear)
what accessory part of the eye produces eye boogers?
what accessory part of the eye lubricates the eyelid to prevent it from sticking together?
meibomian glands or tarsal glands
what part of the eye produces tears?
what accessory portion of the eye is a transparent mucous membrane that covers the eyelid?
what are the 6 muscles controlling eye movements?
superior oblique (4) , inferior oblique, inferior rectus, superior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus (6)
when an affected eye moves medially or laterally
what are the parts of the fibrous part of the eye
Sclera- white part
cornea- clear, avascular
what are the parts of the vascular part of the eye?
choroid- vascular layer, supplies retina
ciliary body - muscles that control lens shape
iris- color of eye
pupil- allows light to enter the eye
what are the parts of the retinal part of the eye?
rods- black and white
optic disc- where the optic nerve exits eye
fovea centtralis- vitrous humor goes to the sides, allowing light to pass directly to photoreceptors
retinal detachment - where pigmented and neural layers of the retina seperate
thin watery fluid that fills space between cornea and iris
posterior segment of eye filled with this. clear gel, binds tremendous amount of water
blockage of the ducts that drain aqeous humor, increases intraocular pressure, blindness eventually results (vision growing gray)
clouding of the lens thaat makes the world appear distorted
distant vision, can focus 20 feet away
distant objects focus in front of the retina, nearsightedness , you can see close up but not far away
objects from far away focus behind the retina, farsightedness, can see better far away
unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens
focusing of light on the eye
the point at which rays or waves meet after reflection or refraction, or the point from which diverging rays or waves appear to proceed.
moves focal point forward, thicker in the center
moves focal point further back, thinner in the center
what are 3 responses of the eye that provide for close vision?
change lens shape to increase refraction
constricts pupils to prevent most divergent light rays from entering the eye
medial rotation of eyeball toward object being viewed
not being able to see at night, caused by vitamin A deficiency and by retinitis
behind the eyeball, pushing it outward
partial crossover of fibers of the optic nerves
helps detect different smells, humans can detect 10,000 different odors and 400 "smell" genes just in nose
the loss of the sense of smell, either total or partial. It may be caused by head injury, infection, or blockage of the nose.
helps determine between different tastes
what are the 5 different taste buds?
umami - savory. amino acids glutamate
sweet-sugars, saccharin, alcohol, some amino acids, some lead salts
sour- hydrogen ions in solution
salty - metal ions (inorganic salts)
bitter- alkalines such as quinine or nicotine; aspirine
what is the internal ear responsible for?
hearing and equilibrium
what does the inner ear contain
explain how the balance organs of the semicircular canals and vestibule maintain dynamic and static equilibrium
vestibule: moving back/ forward
semicircular: leaning forward
types of hair cells being manipulated to tell your bodies directions.
vision loss over time
surface of the taste buds, looks like edges of a leaf
papillae that look like mushrooms
papillae that looks like edges
list 2 nerves that carry taste impulses to the brain:
glossopharyngeal from facial- tongue
middle ear inflammation
(lancing of the eardrum) performed when large amounts of fluid or puss accumulate in the middle ear. reiterates pressure. have to put tubes in to drain ear
describe sound transmission
ear drum - stapes- incus- mallelous vibrates- cochlea- (inside cochlea) hair receptor sends info to identify
distance between two consecutive crests
number of waves that pass given points at a given time
perception of different frequencies
the height of the crests
how high or low a wavelength is
what is located in the external ear?
-auricle/pinna- the ear
-external acoustic meatus (auditory canal) - short curve tube that extends from the auricle to the eardrum
what is located in the middle ear (tympanic)?
explain how the balance of organs of the semicircular canals and vestibule help maintain equilibrium
vestibule: moving forward/ backward
semicircular: leaning forward
types of hair cells being manipulated to tell your body direction
loss of vision over time
death of hair cells
hardening of the ossicles, interferes with the transmissioin of sound
happens with taste when you age, producing less saliva
blocked sound conduction to fluids of internal ear
damage to neural structures at any point from cochlear hair cells to auditory cortical cells
ringing or clicking in ears in absence or auditory stimuli
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