Progressive Era Study Guide
Terms in this set (39)
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Muckracker who wrote about vote stealing and political machines in The Shame of Cities
Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
26th President of the United States, Created the "Square Deal", He also doubled the National Parks and created monuments ( Nature Conservationist )
27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930). He replaced Teddy Roosevelt as President and would later lose to Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 election.
Dem.,(1912-1920), beat Roosevelt, Debbs, and Taft in the Election of 1912; created the Federal Trade Commission to monitor U.S. businesses & regulate unfair practices; passed first child labor law; nominated Progressive to Supreme Court; expanded role of Pres & federal gov; Pres at start of WWI.
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportunity to succeed
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
1919, Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
1920, Extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
coal miner strike of 1904
Teddy Roosevelt stepped in and halted the strike, and made the 'Square Deal' - go back to work and also get a raise (win-win for workers and manufacturer).
Ban on Child Labor
In the late 1800s a significant portion of the labor force was made up of children under the age of 15, some as young as 5 years old. These child laborers did not attend school. They worked in sweat shops which were workshops in tenements rather than factories.
The Pure Food and Drug Act
Law passed in 1906 which controlled and regulated the composition, sale, and distribution of drugs
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
Passed in 1906 largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking industry
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Finally established an effective national banking system and a flexible money supply.
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Forbid federal courts from issuing injunctions against peaceful strikes;
banned some business practices that limited competition; stopped anti-trust laws that were anti-unions.
Roosevelt's New Nationalism Speech
TR campaigned for suffrage and broad social welfare, such as minimum-wage laws and "socialistic" social insurance. Inspired by Herbert Crowly's 'The Promise of American Life'(1910), which stated that government control the bad trusts, leaving the good trusts free to operate.
Origins of Progressivism
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Leader of the National Woman's party, campaigned for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for Women's rights, temperance, abolition, & helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
President of the National Womens' Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Presidents Wilson & Roosevelt- how did they embrace the progressive movement?
Roosevelt:Meat Packing Act of 1906/Preserving America's natural resources by setting aside 125 million acres of timberlands as federal reserves/Pure food and drug act 1906 Wilson: assault on triple wall of privilege - tariffs, banks, and trusts
How did muckrakers bring about reform?
they brought attention to corruption and squalid living/working conditions of cities.
How did President Taft back away from reform?
Influenced in part by his conservative advisors who wanted to give free rein to businesses. Taft feared that trust-busting was going to have a negative impact on the overall economy.
a form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
National Women's Party
organization founded in 1916; platform was to achieve a federal amendment granting suffrage to women.
Suffrage is the civil right to vote.
What changes occurred in the late 1800s that helped wonmen 'think' more clearly about suffrage?
Popular literature and the expansion of communications through the press and other means enlightened rural women to the opportunities opening up for their gender
Why did the younger generation of suffragists break from the older generation?
Differing ideas of how to gain support; Paul was adept at garnering publicity & formed the militant Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage; Paul and her group left the NAWSA, picketed the White House and went on hunger strikes, in order to win attention and sympathy. Catt and the NAWSA disapproved, and did not want to alienate friends in both political parties.
Describe Suffragist strategies.
Picketing, bonfires held in front of the White House, hunger strikes.
How did the Iron Jawed Angels add new light to Suffragist Movement?
Through unlawful emprisonment, hunger strikes and force feedings that became public fodder in the newpapers, the Iron Jawed Angels gave suffrage front-page sympathetic print, creating increased support for the movement.
Ratification process of the 19th amendment
Required two-thirds votes of the house and senate, and culminated on August 28, 1920, when Tenn became the final vote needed to ratify women's vote.