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30.1 South Asia After Empire
Terms in this set (50)
1919; Allowed British to deal harshly with increasing opposition in India; government could jail protesters without trial for as long as two years
10,000 Hindus/Muslims went to Amristar to protest Rowlatt Acts in spring 1919; British fired into unarmed crowd and killed 400 and wounded 1,200
British general that ordered the firing of British troops at the Amritsar Massacre
What changed in India after Amritsar Massacre?
Indians changed from loyal British subjects into nationalists and demanded independence
Blended ideas from Hinduism, Islam, Christianity; believed in ahisma and civil disobedience
Gandhi's 4 Goals
Independence from Britain
Religious unity (Hindus and Muslims)
End to untouchability
What was Gandhi's nickname?
Mahatma; "great soul"
The deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law
"soul-force"; a method of securing rights by personal suffering; involves sacrifice of self
1920; Gandhi called on Indians to refuse to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, or vote in elections; boycotted British cloth
Indians could only buy salt from British government and pay taxes
1930; Indians walked to ocean, collected water, let it evaporate
March to Dharasana Salt Works
Indians refused to defend themselves against their attackers; 60,000 people including Gandhi arrested
Why does Gandhi tell British about the march on Dharasana Salt Works?
To give them a warning and hopefully get a response; they were breaking the law so British had to do something; replying with force would make them look cruel but giving in would make them look weak
Someone that provokes a response
Government of India Act
1935; allowed local self-government and limited democratic elections but not total independence
Indian National Congress
Congress party; Formed in 1885; Helped win self-rule for Indians in 1930s; India's national political party; had mostly Hindus
What happened when British demanded Indians fight in WWII?
The INC refused and Gandhi began "Quit India" campaign
"Quit India" campaign
Nonviolent protest to drive British from India
How did British respond?
British imprisoned Gandhi and INC members; riots, violence, and Indian nationalism grew
What did Britain do in 1939?
British committed Indian forces to WWII without consulting them first; Indians upset
India in 1942
255 million Hindus and 92 million Muslims; small # of Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists
What did the British try to do in 1942?
Tried to gain support of Indian nationalists by promising government changes after war but did not include independence
Why did Muslims want a separate nation?
They thought an independent democratic India would be dominated by Hindus
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Leader of Muslim League; insisted all Muslims resign from INC
Formed in 1906; Organization that worked for the interests of India's Muslims; called for partition of India into separate Muslim and Hindu countries in 1940 and Gandhi opposed the partition
What did British do?
British thought partition was best idea as tension between Muslims/Hindus grew; British ended colonial rule of India in August 1947 and created Muslim East and West Pakistan and Hindu India
India's first prime minister
Migration after partition
Followers of other religions moved across border; Muslims traveled to Pakistan, Hindus/Sikhs to India; violence between religious groups erupted during the move and over a million died
August 1946; Muslims and Hindus fought for 4 days ; over 5,000 dead and 15,000 wounded
When was the act that granted India and Pakistan two independent nations signed?
July 16, 1947
What happened on January 30, 1948?
Gandhi was shot by a Hindu who blamed Gandhi for partition and said he sacrificed Hindus to protect Muslims
Region near northern border of India and Pakistan; India and Pakistan fought over region in 1949 and divided it into 2 parts
What happened on August 15, 1947?
With the granting of its independence, India became the worlds largest democracy
Nehru as leader
Emphasized need for unity and economic/social reforms and respect for democratic ideals; increased legal rights of women, improved lives of the poor, prevented discrimination based on caste, utilized modern science and technology to improve industry and agriculture; did not take sides in Cold War
When did Nehru die?
Nehru's daughter; became prime minister after Nehru and served 4 terms
Holiest shrine of Sikh religion in Amritsar, India
What happened at the Golden Temple?
1984; Group of militant Sikhs occupied it and Gandhi had troops drive militants out of temple; hundreds killed and attack damaged temple and scriptures
How did the Sikhs react?
1984; Sikh bodyguards assassinated Indira Gandhi; created wave of anti-Sikh violence that killed thousands
In 1990s, government loosened control on industries and reduced trade barriers encouraging growth of new businesses; Indian economy grew; service industries (information technology and customer-servie industry) expanded; 1.1 billion people
Mumbai and Kolkata
Millions of poor given food, clothes, medicine from charity groups
Missionaries of Charity
Charity group founded in Kolkata by Roman Catholic nun Mother Teresa
Did East Pakistan or West Pakistan control the government?
East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh; East Pakistan seeked independence in 1971 and was aided by Indians; Pakistani government replied with force and thousands died
Very poor and densely populated; several storms and floods killed thousands and led to famine; had several governments since independence but is trying to build a stable democracy
General Pervez Musharraf
Took power in Pakistan in 1999 by overthrowing elected government; works with U.S. in Afghanistan
When did India test their nuclear bomb?
When did Pakistan test their nuclear bomb?
Island nation which used to be a British colony called Ceylon until late 1940s; fighting between Buddhist Sinhalese majority with power and Hindu Tamil minority