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"Prentice Hall World Studies The Ancient World: Chapter 7

Ancient Rome: Section 2 The Roman Empire from Prentice Hall World Studies The Ancient World
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Augustus
Used to be Octavian but changed his name to Augustus and started Pax Romana.
The 5 Good Emperors
When Augustus died there were a variety of rulers after him. The five good emperors were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Commodus
Marcus Aurelius's son who ended Pax Romana and ruled with brutality.
Justinian
Justinian made a famous code of laws called Justinian's Code. Some of the rules are still used today.
Remus & Romulus
The founders of the Roman Empire by legend.
The Etruscans
The people who actually founded Rome. They were kicked out of power by the Romans because the Romans didn't like having only one person in charge.
Senate
A group of 300 men who gave the consuls of the Roman Republic advice. At first, all of them were patricians but in 376 B.C. plebeians were allowed to be senators too. (Aristocratic)
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar was a man who lead his army to conquer Gaul (present-day France and surrounding areas). Later he became dictator, the only consul, and then dictator for life. He was later killed in a senate meeting on March 15, 44 B.C. because the senate was afraid that he might destroy them.
Octavian
Octavian was Julius Caesar's adopted son. After Caesar was killed, he changed his name to "Augustus" meaning "highly respected" and became the first Roman Emperor.
The Roman Republic
The Roman Republic lasted about 500 years and controlled Gaul, northern Africa, and Eastern Asia, and (of course) Italy at its height.
Consul
One of two officials who led the Roman Republic
Patrician
A member of an upper-class family in the
Roman Republic
Plebeian
An ordinary citizen in the Roman Republic
Veto
The rejection of any planned action or rule by a person in power
Republic
A government in which citizens who have the right to vote select their leaders
Dictator
A ruler who has total control of the government
What advantages did the first settlers of Rome's seven hills have?
The hills made the area easy to defend, the soil was fertile and the area had a good source of water.
What did the Romans adopt from the Etruscan after the Romans drove the Etruscans out of Rome?
Many of the Roman gods were originally Etruscan, they also borrowed the Greek alphabet and the garment called the toga also came from the Etruscans.
imperialism
The practice of gaining control over foreign lands and peoples.
What events followed the death of Julius Caesar?
Civil War started soon after his death and it lasted 13 years.
One of the reasons Caesar was killed was because
He ruled for too long and ruled like a king
Province
A unit of an empire or roman empire ruled by a governor who was supported by an army
Colosseum
a large amphithrster built in rome around AD 70 site of contests and combats between people and animals
Aqueduct
a structure that carries water over long distances
Pax Romana
the period in stability and prosperity in the roman empire lasting from 27 BC to AD 180
Did the Romans interfere with the conquered peoples' lives?
No, they did not force their way oflife on conquered peoples. They allowed them to follow their own religions. Local rulers were allowed to run the daily affairs of government. As long as there was peace, Roman governors did not interfere in conquered peoples' lives. Rather, they kept watch over them.
5 "good emperors"
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Puis, and Marcus Aurelius
Who were two of the worst emperors during the Pax Romana?
Caligula and Nero.
Hadrian
He issued a code of laws, making laws uniform throughout the empire. He reorganized the army and also encouraged learning.
How do the Romans worship?
They honored gods and goddesses who often had Greek counterparts.
What was possibly the greatest roman building?
The Colosseum
Romans were famous for there what?
Aqueducts
romes laws are simualr too
our laws
Villa
A large country estate an important source of food for ancient rome
Circus
An arena in ancient rome also the show held there
Gladiator
A person in ancient Rome who fought in an arena for the entertainment of the public usually a slave, who had been captured in battle. However, a few were free men and some women who fought professionally.
Messiah
A savior in Judaism and Christianity
Jesus
Founder of Christianity believed by his followers to be the Messiah
Disciple
Follower of a person or belief
Epistle
A letter in Christain Bible, any of the letters written by disciples to Christain groups
Martyr
A person who dies fo a particular cause
Under who's reign was Jesus born?
Herod
What did the Jews believe about the Messiah?
He would bring justice and freedom to their land.
What happened to Christians under the Emperor Diocletian?
He outlawed Christian services and put many believers to death.
What happened to Christians under the Emperor Nero?
The first official campaign against the Christians began. A fire broke out and burned for 9 days, leaving much of the city in ruins. Nero blamed the Christians and ordered the arrest of Christians, who were sent to their deaths.
Who conquered the Jewish homeland of Judea?
The Romans
Who is Paul?
One of the most devoted followers of Jesus. His name was originally Saul. He was a well educated Jew who spoke Green.
Why did Christianity appeal to many people?
Its message for a better life.
Why did people begin calling Jesus Christ?
The Greek equivalent to Messiah was Christos - they shortened it to Christ
Why was Jesus put to death?
The Empire feared that he might lead an armed revolt against the government.
Why were Christians considered enemies of the empire?
They refused to worship Roman gods or emperors - they believed in one God.
Republic
A government in which citizens who have the right to vote select their leaders.
Constantine
Emperor of Rome from A.D. 312 to 337; encouraged the spread of Christianity.
Mercenary
A soldier who serves for pay in a foreign army.
Inflation
An economic situation in which there is more money with less value.
peninsula
A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
Latins
the first Romans
Palatine Hill
One of the Seven Hills of Rome; Founded by Romulus
Tribunes of the Plebs
Roman officials elected by the Council of the Plebs who had the power to protect the plebeians
Twelve tables
Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.
The Punic wars
A series of wars between Rome and Carthage for control of the Mediterranean Sea. Rome was ultimately victorious.
Carthage
- rival in punic war
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Pompey
Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)
Rubicon River
A river in Italy. On the night of January 10, 49 BC, Caesar took his army across it. He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and Pompey fled.
A river Caesar crossed to attack Rome and become dictator
Praetorian Guard
Augustus' personal army, guarding the palace
Hadrian's Wall
a wall built to keep Scots from attacking roman settlements
Bread and Circuses
A Roman bribery method of coping with class difference. Entertainment and food was offered to keep plebeians quiet without actually solving unemployment problems.
Vesta
Goddess of the hearth
Paterfamilias
male head of family
Bulla
Tunic a baby wears when it's 9 days old and until age 15
circus maximus
An ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome.
"All roads lead to Rome"
Rome was the center of trade, the military, government, and business...
-in Rome, all the roads were built starting in the center of the city and went to the farthest parts of their empire. what famous saying did they use to describe this practice(2)
Constantinople
A place previously known as Byzantium which became the capitol of the Roman Empire or "new Rome"
Germanic Tribes/Barbarians
After Constantin's death, invaders from the North invade Rome's border- Germanic tribes/Barbarians- they have been defeated by Romans int he past, but couldn't now be stopped.
Visigoths
A member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century.
Romulus Augustulus
Last emperor before the fall of Rome, 14 years old and rules from 475-476 AD.
What was the effect of Rome's Geography on the growth of the empire?
People settled on the 7 hills because it was easy to defend, soil was fertile and the area had a good source of water. Rome was also the center of the peninsula we now call Italy, which was also the center of the Mediterranean Sea, which was at the center of the known Western world.
What was the importance of the Punic wars?
Expands Rome's power and territory; thousands of Roman soldiers died. Farms outside of Rome stopped; new customs from Greece arrive in Rome.
What were Octavian's Contributions to Rome?
Pax Romana started "roman peace," which lasted for 200 years. During this time, people and goods travelled within the empire, and trade continued. Also, more territory was gained.
What was the Justinian code of Laws?
The Justinian Code is the new uniform code of law which included laws on marriage, slavery, property, women's rights, and criminal justice. "No one suffers a penalty for what he thinks. No one may be forcibly removed from their house. The burden of proof in upon the person who accuses. In afflicting penalties, the age and inexperience of the guilty party must be taken into account."
What are the Events that lead to the fall of Rome?
Started with death of Marcus Aurelius, then under Commodus. There were a series of corrupt Roman Emperors; they stole money from the treasury to get rich and bribe soldiers; government and economy lost stability; senate lost power; many rulers gained the throne through violence. Empire was too large to be ruled from one place. No new sources of wealth available so there was a struggle to pay its army; taxes were increased and there was severe unemployment; food was in short supply so cost went up; more coins were produced declining the value of money, which lead to inflation; Roman coins became worthless.
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