23 terms

Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration

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Aerobic
Containing or requiring molecular oxygen
Aerobic capacity
Maximum rate at which oxygen can be taken in and used by muscles
Anaerobic
Lacking or not requiring molecular oxygen
Photosynthesis
Process that uses light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from CO2 and H2O
Autotrophs
Organism that makes its own food; includes cyanobacteria, algae, plants
Heterotroph
Organism incapable of making its own food and must obtain obtain organic compounds by consuming other organisms
Producers
Organisms that can make their own organic molecules from CO2, H2O and other inorganic raw materials
Consumers
Organism that obtains food by eating other organisms
Cellular respiration
Aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; E-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules and storage of PE in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
Redox reaction
Chemical reaction in which one molecule loses electrons (oxidation) and added to another molecule (reduction)
Oxidation
Loss of electrons from a molecule involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction
Reduction
Gain of electrons by a molecule involved in a redox reaction
NADH
Molecule that carries electron from glucose and other fuel molecules and deposits them at the top of an electron transport chain; generated during glycolysis and electron transport chain
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; in the inner membrane of mitochondria
Glycolysis
Multistep breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two pyruvic acid molecules; occurs in the cytoplasm
Citric acid cycle
Metabolic cycle that is fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration;complete metabolic breakdown of glucose to CO2 (Krebs cycle)
ATP synthase
Enzyme in the inner membrane of mitochondria that functions using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration to make ATP; provides a port for hydrogen ion diffusion
Fermentation
The anaerobic harvesting of food energy
Alcoholic Fermentation
The anaerobic process in glucose is converted into cellular energy and thereby produces ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Anaerobic process by which glucose is converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproduct lactic acid.
Facultative anaerobe
microorganism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present and fermentation if oxygen is absent
Obligate anaerobe
Organism that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
Obligate aerobe
An organism that cannot survive without oxygen