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Hot Button Quiz Chapter 4
Terms in this set (78)
geologic time scale
Earth's history organized into four eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
inner zone of earth, solid inner, liquid outer
zone of the earth's interior between its core and crust
A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. This zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 kilometers and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
outer shell of earth, composed of crust and the outermost part of the mantle, material found in earth's plates
solid outer zone of the earth , oceanic crust and continental effect
various-sized areas of the earth's lithosphere that move slowly around the mantle's flowing asthenosphere, most volcanoes and earthquakes occur around the boundaries
plate boundaries: convergent, divergent, transform fault
lithosphere plates pushed together/
lithosphere plates move apart/
plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture
volcanoes: rift, subduction, hot spot
plates move away, magma rises and creates a new layer of seaflooor/
area where oceanic lithosphere is moved downwards under the land at a convergent boundary, trench forms/
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
earthquake: focus, epicenter, seismograph
point below surface where movement originates/
point of surface above focus/
measure the magnitude of an earthquake
heavier plates move under light ones - oceanic plates under continental plates
very large waves or chains of waves, caused by the movement of the earth during an earthquake or volcanic eruption
slow cycle where rocks create themselves
formed as sediment (eroded rocks and the remains of plants and animals) builds up and is comprised. Occurs often at a subduction zone where ocean sediments are pushed deep into the earth and compressed by the weight of the rock above it.
intense pressure and heat
weathering: physical, chemical
process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces/
chemical interaction with bedrock - water + atmospheric gases/
dark, crumbly, nutrient-rich material that results from the decomposition of organic matter
process where various chemical upper layers of soil are dissolved into lower layers
The movement of dissolved material from higher soil layers to lower soil layers due to the downward movement of water, which is caused by gravity.
land that fits is to be cultivated
soil composed of a mixture of clay, sand, silt, and organic matter
one type of crop in an area
THE PLANTING OF DIFFERENT CROPS TO REDUCE soil nutrition delpetion
increased yields in time periods due to increased use of fertilizers and pesticides
the accumulation of salts
deterioration of land quality (topsoil, organisms, vegetation, water quality), usually caused by its exploitation.
method of supplying irrigation water through tubes that drip water onto soil at the base of each part
process of soil particles being taken away by wind, water, etc.
where weather happens; 1st zone
earths atmosphere traps the suns radiation because gases absorb heat and trap it
area between troposphere and stratosphere
where ozone layer is; 2nd zone
layer of protective gases that block radiation from the sun
3rd layer of the atmosphere`
outermost shell of atmosphere, temperature increases steadily; aurora
belts of air that distribute heat and moisture unevenly
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth's hemisphere.
air currents caused by the vertical movement of air due to the atmospheric heating + cooling
cool air that flows along earth's surface into the area where warm air was located; surface wind creation.
the temperature at which water vapor condenses into liquid water; this condensation creates clouds.
starts cycle over the equator and cool dry air descends at 30 N&S, The atmospheric circulation cell nearest the equator in each hemisphere. Air in these cells rises near the equator because of strong solar heating there and falls because of cooling at about 30° latitude.
more or less constant winds blowing in horizontal directions over Earth's surface
trade winds, 30 - 35 N&S
calm, lightwind region of ocean where movement is slow/not at all
`high speed, meandering wind current
wind system that influences large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally.
rain shadow effect
side of a mountain that receives no rainfall (leeward)
severe tropical storm originating in the equatorial regions
climatic variation that occurs every 3 - 7 years for one year when normal trade winds are weakened
opposite of El Nino occurs every 4 - 12 years, cooling an ocean surface off the west coast
alterations of atmosphere that lead to El NINO Y LA NINA
region draining into a river system or other body of water
triangular alluvial deposit near the the mouth of a river with fertile soil
where currents meet tides
a low land area saturated with moisture
freshwater layer that is uppermost and most oxygenated
freshwater layer that is the colder, denser layer
layer in large bodies of water that separates regions differing in temp
fresh water lake zone: shallow water at shoreline, receives most sunlight. end is where rooted plants stop growing.
freshwater lake zone with open water; extends to depth sunlight can penetrate
freshwater lake zone with water that is too deep for sunlight to penetrate
freshwater lake zone and other bodies of water: deeper layer of ocean floor (crabs). Low temps and low oxygen levels.
land that lies off coastal shore created by building up deposited sediments constantly changing b/c of water
ocean zones: upper layers of water, warmest region, most oxygen
ocean zones: mid-region, receives insufficient light for photosynthesis
ocean zones: deepest/coldest part of the ocean , low oxygen, high nutrients (decaying matter that sinks down)
ocean zone: ocean water closes to land- between shore and end of continental shelf
process in which cold, nutrient rich waters from deep ocean depths rise to surface
notorious recurring toxic algae bloom (dinoflagellates).
ways to deal with water; water is transported long distances from its source through aqueducts or pipelines.
any water that comes from the ground
underground layer of porous rock, sand + any other material that yield water
water that is free to flow vertically + horizontally
boundaries that do not transport water
- have a renewable annual water supple of about 1000-2000 m^3 per person.
- worse: less than 1000 m^3 per person
right of people to fish/ use riverbed
when water rights are given to those who have historically used the water in a certain area
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