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37 terms

Cell Reproduction, Mitosis, and Meiosis

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Cell Cycle
the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Interphase
a period between mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and gains nutrients
Replication
the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Chromatin
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
Mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Nuclear Replication
Synthesis of DNA which occur in the nucleus
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Spindle
tiny fibers that are seen in cell division
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Cell Plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokenisis
Cleavage Furrow
the area of a cell membrane that pinches inward during animal cell mitosis eventually dividing the cell
Metastasis
the spread of cancer cells from their original site
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Diploid
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid
a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes which contain similar genes arranged in the same order along the chromosome
Tetrad
a pair of homologous chromosomes
Genetic recombination
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
Sexual reproduction
the production of offspring through meiosis and the fertilization of a sperm and an egg
Gamete
sex cell
Egg
female sex cell
Sperm
male sex cell
Zygote
a fertilized egg
Karyotype
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
Autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Sex chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual (23rd chromosome)
Nondisjunction
error in meiosis where homologous chromosomes fail to separate
Carcinogen
a substance that causes cancer
Mutagen
physical or chemical agent that causes mutations
Down's Syndrome
genetic disorder in which an extra chromosome 21 is passed on. Also called trisomy 21
Klinefelter's Syndrome
males with XXY sex chromosomes
Turner's Syndrome
where females only have a single x chromosome instead of two. Also called monosomy 21
Prophase
the first stage of mitosis or meiosis cell division, when the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
Metaphase
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell
Anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around sets of new chromosomes
Binary Fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells