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produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol)

Yeast cells under anaerobic conditions

inhibition of phosphofructokinase adn the slow down of glycolysis

High levels of a citrate in the cell would result in:


_____ is the process by which certain organisms capture energy from sunlight and use it to build energy-rich food molecules.


In the _____ reactions of photosythesis, electron carrier molecules are reduced and ATP is synthesizedf.


Each pigment molecule has a characteristic ______ spectrum


The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.


In eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside the _____


_____ adapted plants such as cacti, pineapples, etc. show a pattern of stomatal opening and closing tha is the reverse of C3 plants.


The general process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called ____

calvin cycle

Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the _____


Flattened sacs of internal membranes associated by photosythesis is called ____

400-700 nm

Visible light has a wavelength range of

convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)

The dark reactions of photosythesis are those that


Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosythesis. From which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived?

cessation of chlorophyll production, which allows the accessory pigments to be revealed

Fall leaf color on deciduous trees is a result of


Adjacent cells can signal others by direct contact, while nearby cells that are not touching can communicate by the release of ____ signals


Chemically-gated ion ____ open or close when signal molecules bind to the channel, allowing specific ions to diffuse through the channel.


Enzymatic receptors typically activate intracellular proteins by ___

the addition or removal of a phosphate group can expose or hide potential binding sites in proteins

Why is phosphorylation-dephosphrylation commonly used to regulate signal transduction pathways?


You are planning to perform some protein-protein interaction studies to identify a receptor for a steroid hormone you have been working on. With what type of cell extracts should you begin?


Bacteria divide by binary ____, in which the cell divides into two nearly equal halves


Most eukaryotic cells go through a repeating process of growth and division referred to as teh cell ____


The accommodation of the very long DNA fiber into a limited space of the nucleus is achieved by coiling around beads of histones into repeating subunits. These subunits of chromosomes are given the name ____


Each chromosome has a ____, a point of constriction containing certain repeated DNA sequences that bind specific proteins


______ is the portion of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed


Phosphase is the first stage of mitosis characterized by the _____ of the chromosomes


The stage of mitosis characterized by the physical separation of sister chromatids is called


Normally, ____ functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage.


Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. The name of this chemical complex is a ____


If a eukaryotic cell has a single set of chromosomes, it is called ___


The physical map of the array of chromosomes is called ____

homologous chromosomes

The two copies of each chromosome in body cells are called ____

sister chromatids

Before cell division of the body cells, each homologue replicates into two parts. These parts are connected by a centromere adn are called ____


What represents interphase?

cyclins adn cyclin-dependent kinases

The proteins that participate in the functioning of teh checkpoints for cell cycle control are

growth factors

Recent studies on cell cycle controls have revealed that animal cells can employ certain factors to override the inhibiory controls of cell division. These belong to a class of proteins called _____

46 pairs of sister chromatids and 184 individual DNA molecules

Following S phase, a human cell woudl have how many pairs of sister chromatids and individual DNA molecules.

is a tumor suppressor geneRb and p53

You have been asked to provide genetic counseling to a family sho has a very high incidence of various types of cancer. After some discussion, you tell them that you will do some genetic testing to determine if they carry any mutations that predispose them to cancer. Mutaions in what proteins are most commonly associated with cancers?

the brake pedal of a car does not work at all

What analogy for a cell with a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene


_____ is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation


Sexual reproduction is significant in increasing genetic ____


Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consists of how many rounds of nuclear division?


Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids

germline cells

In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. these are ____

homologous pairs of chromosomes pare up along their length

In one of the first steps in meiosis, the _____

crossing over

Chromosomes exchange genetic information by ____

no S phase

Between the two divisions of meiosis ther is ___

a lattice of proteins tha holds homologues together

The synaptonemal complex develops early in meiosis. It is _____

chromosomes are divided into daughter cells in a random fashion

Independent assortmen, a factor in producing genetic variabily

mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to diploid somatic cells. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to haploid gametes

Meiosis and mitosis are both processes that involve nuclear division. What is difference between the two?

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