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Biology Final Exam 3

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produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol)
Yeast cells under anaerobic conditions
inhibition of phosphofructokinase adn the slow down of glycolysis
High levels of a citrate in the cell would result in:
photosynthesis
_____ is the process by which certain organisms capture energy from sunlight and use it to build energy-rich food molecules.
light
In the _____ reactions of photosythesis, electron carrier molecules are reduced and ATP is synthesizedf.
absorption
Each pigment molecule has a characteristic ______ spectrum
NADPH
The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.
chloroplasts
In eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside the _____
CAM
_____ adapted plants such as cacti, pineapples, etc. show a pattern of stomatal opening and closing tha is the reverse of C3 plants.
chemiosmosis
The general process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called ____
calvin cycle
Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the _____
thylakoids
Flattened sacs of internal membranes associated by photosythesis is called ____
400-700 nm
Visible light has a wavelength range of
convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)
The dark reactions of photosythesis are those that
water
Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosythesis. From which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived?
cessation of chlorophyll production, which allows the accessory pigments to be revealed
Fall leaf color on deciduous trees is a result of
paracrine
Adjacent cells can signal others by direct contact, while nearby cells that are not touching can communicate by the release of ____ signals
channels
Chemically-gated ion ____ open or close when signal molecules bind to the channel, allowing specific ions to diffuse through the channel.
phosphorylation
Enzymatic receptors typically activate intracellular proteins by ___
the addition or removal of a phosphate group can expose or hide potential binding sites in proteins
Why is phosphorylation-dephosphrylation commonly used to regulate signal transduction pathways?
cytoplasmic
You are planning to perform some protein-protein interaction studies to identify a receptor for a steroid hormone you have been working on. With what type of cell extracts should you begin?
fission
Bacteria divide by binary ____, in which the cell divides into two nearly equal halves
cycle
Most eukaryotic cells go through a repeating process of growth and division referred to as teh cell ____
nucleosomes
The accommodation of the very long DNA fiber into a limited space of the nucleus is achieved by coiling around beads of histones into repeating subunits. These subunits of chromosomes are given the name ____
centromere
Each chromosome has a ____, a point of constriction containing certain repeated DNA sequences that bind specific proteins
interphase
______ is the portion of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed
condensation
Phosphase is the first stage of mitosis characterized by the _____ of the chromosomes
anaphase
The stage of mitosis characterized by the physical separation of sister chromatids is called
p53
Normally, ____ functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage.
chromatin
Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. The name of this chemical complex is a ____
haploid
If a eukaryotic cell has a single set of chromosomes, it is called ___
karyotype
The physical map of the array of chromosomes is called ____
homologous chromosomes
The two copies of each chromosome in body cells are called ____
sister chromatids
Before cell division of the body cells, each homologue replicates into two parts. These parts are connected by a centromere adn are called ____
G1+G2+S
What represents interphase?
cyclins adn cyclin-dependent kinases
The proteins that participate in the functioning of teh checkpoints for cell cycle control are
growth factors
Recent studies on cell cycle controls have revealed that animal cells can employ certain factors to override the inhibiory controls of cell division. These belong to a class of proteins called _____
46 pairs of sister chromatids and 184 individual DNA molecules
Following S phase, a human cell woudl have how many pairs of sister chromatids and individual DNA molecules.
is a tumor suppressor geneRb and p53
You have been asked to provide genetic counseling to a family sho has a very high incidence of various types of cancer. After some discussion, you tell them that you will do some genetic testing to determine if they carry any mutations that predispose them to cancer. Mutaions in what proteins are most commonly associated with cancers?
the brake pedal of a car does not work at all
What analogy for a cell with a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene
meiosis
_____ is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation
diversity
Sexual reproduction is significant in increasing genetic ____
two
Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consists of how many rounds of nuclear division?
false
Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids
germline cells
In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. these are ____
homologous pairs of chromosomes pare up along their length
In one of the first steps in meiosis, the _____
crossing over
Chromosomes exchange genetic information by ____
no S phase
Between the two divisions of meiosis ther is ___
a lattice of proteins tha holds homologues together
The synaptonemal complex develops early in meiosis. It is _____
chromosomes are divided into daughter cells in a random fashion
Independent assortmen, a factor in producing genetic variabily
mitosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to diploid somatic cells. Meiosis is nuclear division, which ultimately leads to haploid gametes
Meiosis and mitosis are both processes that involve nuclear division. What is difference between the two?