inhibition of phosphofructokinase adn the slow down of glycolysis
High levels of a citrate in the cell would result in:
_____ is the process by which certain organisms capture energy from sunlight and use it to build energy-rich food molecules.
In the _____ reactions of photosythesis, electron carrier molecules are reduced and ATP is synthesizedf.
_____ adapted plants such as cacti, pineapples, etc. show a pattern of stomatal opening and closing tha is the reverse of C3 plants.
The general process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called ____
Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the _____
Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosythesis. From which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived?
cessation of chlorophyll production, which allows the accessory pigments to be revealed
Fall leaf color on deciduous trees is a result of
Adjacent cells can signal others by direct contact, while nearby cells that are not touching can communicate by the release of ____ signals
Chemically-gated ion ____ open or close when signal molecules bind to the channel, allowing specific ions to diffuse through the channel.
the addition or removal of a phosphate group can expose or hide potential binding sites in proteins
Why is phosphorylation-dephosphrylation commonly used to regulate signal transduction pathways?
You are planning to perform some protein-protein interaction studies to identify a receptor for a steroid hormone you have been working on. With what type of cell extracts should you begin?
Most eukaryotic cells go through a repeating process of growth and division referred to as teh cell ____
The accommodation of the very long DNA fiber into a limited space of the nucleus is achieved by coiling around beads of histones into repeating subunits. These subunits of chromosomes are given the name ____
Each chromosome has a ____, a point of constriction containing certain repeated DNA sequences that bind specific proteins
______ is the portion of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed
The stage of mitosis characterized by the physical separation of sister chromatids is called
Normally, ____ functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage.
Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. The name of this chemical complex is a ____
Before cell division of the body cells, each homologue replicates into two parts. These parts are connected by a centromere adn are called ____
cyclins adn cyclin-dependent kinases
The proteins that participate in the functioning of teh checkpoints for cell cycle control are
Recent studies on cell cycle controls have revealed that animal cells can employ certain factors to override the inhibiory controls of cell division. These belong to a class of proteins called _____
46 pairs of sister chromatids and 184 individual DNA molecules
Following S phase, a human cell woudl have how many pairs of sister chromatids and individual DNA molecules.
is a tumor suppressor geneRb and p53
You have been asked to provide genetic counseling to a family sho has a very high incidence of various types of cancer. After some discussion, you tell them that you will do some genetic testing to determine if they carry any mutations that predispose them to cancer. Mutaions in what proteins are most commonly associated with cancers?
the brake pedal of a car does not work at all
What analogy for a cell with a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene
_____ is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation
Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consists of how many rounds of nuclear division?
In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. these are ____
homologous pairs of chromosomes pare up along their length
In one of the first steps in meiosis, the _____
a lattice of proteins tha holds homologues together
The synaptonemal complex develops early in meiosis. It is _____
chromosomes are divided into daughter cells in a random fashion
Independent assortmen, a factor in producing genetic variabily