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Basic Anatomy & Physiology

Chapter 1 - Mod F
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy of the body
Structure: how it's made
Physiology of the body
Function: how it works
Body Planes
Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body into specific sections
Frontal Plane (coronal)
Vertical cut: Dividing the body into front and back parts
Sagittal Plane (lateral)
Vertical cut: Dividing the body into right and left sides
Transverse Plane (cross-sectional)
Horizontal cut: Dividing the body into upper and lower portions
Anatomical Position
Erect, facing forward, arms at sides, palms and toes pointing forward
Prone
Lying on belly, face down
Supine
Lying on back, face up
*Supine/Spine*
Directional Terms
Help clarify location and position of organs of the body
Anterior
Front of the body
Posterior
Back of the body
*Posterior/Prostate*
Thoracic Cavity
Located in the Ventral cavity
Protects the heart and lungs
*Top of the Spine*
Divisions of the Thoracic Cavity
Pleural Cavity & Mediastinum
Pleural Cavity
Contains a double lining
Visceral pleura covers the organs
Parietal pleura lines the cavity
Mediastinum
Contains the heart
Parietal pericardial membrane lines the cavity
Visceral pericardial membrane covers the heart
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm
Abdominal Cavity
Contains organs that maintain homeostasis
Lined with parietal peritoneal membrane (double-folded membrane)
Has visceral peritoneal membrane that covers organs (mesentery)
Pelvic Cavity
Contains reproductive organs
Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
Used to identify specific locations for clinical purposes
Use vertical and horizontal imaginary lines
Four clinical divisions of the Abdomionopelvic Cavity
RUQ- (right upper quadrant)
LUQ- (left upper quadrant)
RLQ- (right lower quadrant)
LLQ- (left lower quadrant)
Dorsal Cavity Divisions
Cranial cavity
Spinal cavity
Cranial Cavity includes
Brain
Meninges (membranes) covering the brain
Skull bones
Spinal Cavity includes
Meninges (membranes) covering the spinal cord
Spinal cavity formed by the vertebral bones
Divisions of the Spinal Column
Cervical- Neck
Thoracic- Chest
Lumbar- Lower back
Sacral- Hip region
Coccygeal- Hip region- Tail of the spinal cord
Organizational levels of the body
Atoms, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems, Organization
Atoms
Smallest particles of all living things
Cells
Fundamental unit of all things
Tissues
Made from groups of cells
Organs
Made from various tissues
Systems
Composed of organs
Organization
The individual, the "whole" person
Cell Structure
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Organelles
Cell Membrane
Encloses content of a cell
Cytoplasm
Is main fluid substance of a cell
Nucleus
Control center, houses genetic material (DNA, RNA)
Organelles
"Little Organs" that perform specialized functions: growth & reproductions, nourishment, and waste disposal
Transport Systems of the Cell
Passive
*Diffusion
*Osmosis
*Filtration
Active
*Phagocytosis
*Pinocytosis
Diffusion Passive Transport
Creates own energy for movement
Random movement of particles
*Higher concentration to the area of lower concentration
Movement is constant until equalized
Osmosis Passive Transport
Pulling of water molecules through a semipermeable (glass half full or empty) membrane
Creates own energy from movement
Higher concentration to area of lower concentration until equal
Solutions in relation to red blood cell
Hypertonic-Water leaves cell-Cell crenates (shrinks)
Hypotonic-Water enters cell-Cell hemolyzes (bursts)
Isotonic-Water enters cell-Nothing happens (same)
Filtration Passive Transport
Particles are pushed through the membrane by mechanical pressure
Creates own energy for movement
Only particles that fit openings in membrane pass through
Active Transport
Area of low concentration to areas of high concentration
Requires cellular energy (ATP)
Types of active transport
Phagocytosis "cell eating" Moving cell engulfs and eats a solid particle (bacteria)
Pinocytosis "cell drinking" Stationary cell engulfs and digests droplets of fluid
Meiosis (Cell Division)
Division of cells (gametes)
Sperm zygote (new cell) formed by joining of:
* 23 chromosomes from sperm (XY)
* 23 chromosomes from sperm (XX)
New cell has:
*46 single chromosomes for 23 pairs of chromosomes
Genetic Information
Makes us who we are
There are two types of genes
Dominant
Recessive
Genetic disorders occur because
Chromosomal abnormality
Defective genes
Causes of Gene Mutation
Viruses
Chemical Toxins
Drugs
Environment
Radiation
Inherited Disorders (familial)
Passed down from family members
Examples- Hemophilia, Tay-Sachs disease
Congenital Disorders
Born with condition; not aquired from family
Examples- Down Syndrome, Turner Syndrome
Genetic Counseling
Provides information on hereditary diseases and chances of getting them
Body Tissue Types
Epithelial Tissue, Muscle Tissue, Connective Tissue, Nervous Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Covers surfaces, lines cavities, forms glands
Muscle Tissue
Produces movement by contracting and relaxing
Connective Tissue
Supports and forms framework of body
Nervous Tissue
Conducts nerve impulses
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
Covers body surfaces (skin) and lines body cavities
Has no blood supply of it's own
Repairs quickly, being replaced when worn-out
Consists of closely packed cells with little intercellular substance
Specialized cells that secrete from glands
Epithelial Tissue Glands
Exocrine & Endocrine
Exocrine
Have ducts that open onto body surface
Examples: Sweat, tears, and saliva
Endocrine
Are ductless
Discharge hormones into tissue fluid to be absorbed by capillaries
Example: Insulin
Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
Muscle tissue allows movement by contracting (shortening)
Cells are elongated, narrow, and threadlike
These tissues are referred to as muscle fibers
Fibers are arranged in bundles and surrounded by connective tissue
Description of fibers include: Striated, nonstriated, voluntary, involuntary
Types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscles, Smooth Muscles, Cardiac
Skeletal Muscles
Attached to bones by connective tissue
Smooth Muscles
Form wall of hollow organs, control diameter of blood vessels
Cardiac
Make up heart wall, responsible for pumping blood through the heart
Characteristics of Connective Tissue
Is the most abundant tissue type in the body
Provides support and protection to the body
Types of connective tissue include:
Fibrous, Bone, Cartilage, Blood
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Areolar (loose) tissue, Asipose tissue, Reticular tissue & Dense tissue
Areolar (loose) Tissue
Stretchable, found between tissues and organs
Adipose Tissue
Fat cells to help conserve heat; provide padding
Reticular Tissue
Forms a network for helping in body defenses
Dense Tissue
Anchors muscle to bone (tendons) or bone to bone (ligaments)
Cartilage
Similar to bone tissue but more flexible
Types of Cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage- Supports rings of bronchi, covers ends of bone
Fibrocartilage- Acts as shock absorber between vertebrae; strongest, most durable
Elastic Cartilage- Is most flexible; found in tip of nose, external ear
Characteristics of Nerve Tissue
Most highly organized tissue in the body
Consists of:
Neurons (nerve cells)- carry impulses throughout body
Glia Cells- provides nutrition and support to the neurons
Characteristics of Organs
Composed of two or more tissue types
Perform specific functions
Can occur in pairs (ovaries, eyes)
Can continue functioning even if damaged
Body Systems
Organized grouping of structures that perform a similar function
Made up of organs and tissues
Body Systems
Include: Muscular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, circulatory, lymphatic, and skeletal
Organism
Last structural level
"whole" person