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The name for the nucleus of an operating system is the ________.


Second-generation computers were developed to meet the needs of _________.

Linux, NetWare, Unix, Windows

_________ operating systems are typically used for a network platform.

batch and interactive

A hybrid system is a combination of the ________ systems.


Vacuum tube computers were used during the period of _________.


_______ systems are used in time-critical environments where reliability is key and data must be processed within a strict time limit.

A lightweight process

A thread (or ______) can be defined as a unit smaller than a process, which can be scheduled and executed.


The overwhelming demand for ________ capability in the mid-1900s sparked the proliferation of networking capability.


_______ means that several logical records are grouped within one physical record.

User Interface

The _______ is unique to each operating system.

Device manager

The ________ allocates each resource, starts its operation, and finally, deallocates the resource, making it available to the next process or job.


In a computer, the _______ holds the Central Processing Unit, the Arithmetic and Logic Unit, registers, cache, and main memory.


________ is the partitioning of a single server, each of which can support a different operating system.

control unit

In second-generation computers, to reduce the discrepancy in speed between the I/O and the CPU, an interface called the _______ was placed between them to act as a buffer.


A typical _________ computer houses devices to perform audio, video, and graphic creation and editing.


______ are self-contained modules (units of software) that provide models of the real world and can be reused in different applications.


Powerful microcomputers developed for use by commercial, educational, and government enterprises are called _______.

2.4 trillion

A supercomputer can perform _______ floating-point operations per second.

virtual memory

A system with _______ divides programs into parts and keeps them in secondary storage, bringing each part into memory only as it is needed.

Job scheduling

________ introduced the need for control cards, which defined the exact nature of each program and its requirements.


The ______ is used to indicate that a program is permanently held in ROM, as opposed to being held in secondary storage.

I/O devices

_______ include(s) every peripheral unit in the system such as printers, disk drives, CD/DVD drives, flash memory, keyboards, and so on.


The most common mechanism for implementing multiprogramming was the introduction of the ________ concept, which is when the CPU is notified of events needing operating systems services.


________ systems are computers placed inside other products to add features and capabilities.

processor capacity

The primary distinguishing characteristic of modern computers is ________.

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