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19 terms

Chapter 12 Key Terms Psych

STUDY
PLAY
education
a form of socialization in which adults engage in deliberate teaching of young to ensure that they acquire specialized knowledge and skills
apprenticeship
a form of activity combing instruction and productive labor that is intermediate between the implicit socialization of family and community life and the explicit instruction of formal education
emergent literacy
knowledge skills and attitudes that provide the building blocks for learning to read and write
emergent numeracy
knowledge skills and attitudes that provide the building clocks for learning how to do math
bottom-up processing
an approach to education that starts with teaching basic skills and once they have been mastered moves on to more complex tasks
top-down processing
an approach to education that focuses on using skills to accomplish specific, meaningful tasks
instructional discourse
a distinctive way of talking and thinking that is typical in school but rarely encountered in everyday interactions in the community or home
initiation rely feedback sequence
an instructional discourse pattern in which the teacher initiates an exchange usually by asking a question' a student replies; and then the teacher provides feedback
reciprocal teaching
a method of teaching reading in which teachers and children take turns reading text in a manner that integrates decoding and comprehension skills
realistic mathematics instruction
an approach to mathematics education that focuses on developing the student's understanding of how math can be used to solve real-world problems
playworld practice
used in several european countries, and based on theories regarding the importance of play in intellectual development, it involves students performing and discussing various themes in children's literature
specific learning disabilities
a term used to refer to the academic difficulties of children who fare poorly in school despite having normal intelligence
academic motivation
the ability to try hard and persist at school takse in face of difficulties
mastery orientation
a way that children approach school taks in which they are motivated to learn, to try hard and to improve their performance
performance orientation
a way of approaching school taks in whcich students are motivated by their level of performance, ability and incentive sfor trying
entity model of intelligence
the belief that intelligence is a quality of which each person has a certain fixed amount
incremental model of intelligence
the belief that intelligence is something that can grow over time as one learns
school-cutoff strategy
a means of assessing the impact of education while controlling for age by comparing children who are almost the same age but begin schooling a year apart because of school rules that set a specific cutoff birthday date for starting school
cultural style
a dominant way of thinking about and relating to the world that arises from a people's common historical experience