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a form of socialization in which adults engage in deliberate teaching of young to ensure that they acquire specialized knowledge and skills


a form of activity combing instruction and productive labor that is intermediate between the implicit socialization of family and community life and the explicit instruction of formal education

emergent literacy

knowledge skills and attitudes that provide the building blocks for learning to read and write

emergent numeracy

knowledge skills and attitudes that provide the building clocks for learning how to do math

bottom-up processing

an approach to education that starts with teaching basic skills and once they have been mastered moves on to more complex tasks

top-down processing

an approach to education that focuses on using skills to accomplish specific, meaningful tasks

instructional discourse

a distinctive way of talking and thinking that is typical in school but rarely encountered in everyday interactions in the community or home

initiation rely feedback sequence

an instructional discourse pattern in which the teacher initiates an exchange usually by asking a question' a student replies; and then the teacher provides feedback

reciprocal teaching

a method of teaching reading in which teachers and children take turns reading text in a manner that integrates decoding and comprehension skills

realistic mathematics instruction

an approach to mathematics education that focuses on developing the student's understanding of how math can be used to solve real-world problems

playworld practice

used in several european countries, and based on theories regarding the importance of play in intellectual development, it involves students performing and discussing various themes in children's literature

specific learning disabilities

a term used to refer to the academic difficulties of children who fare poorly in school despite having normal intelligence

academic motivation

the ability to try hard and persist at school takse in face of difficulties

mastery orientation

a way that children approach school taks in which they are motivated to learn, to try hard and to improve their performance

performance orientation

a way of approaching school taks in whcich students are motivated by their level of performance, ability and incentive sfor trying

entity model of intelligence

the belief that intelligence is a quality of which each person has a certain fixed amount

incremental model of intelligence

the belief that intelligence is something that can grow over time as one learns

school-cutoff strategy

a means of assessing the impact of education while controlling for age by comparing children who are almost the same age but begin schooling a year apart because of school rules that set a specific cutoff birthday date for starting school

cultural style

a dominant way of thinking about and relating to the world that arises from a people's common historical experience

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