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52 terms

Circulation and Gas Exchange

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Why is the circulatory system necessary?
Transportation; transports blood throughout body
Diffusion
Movement of molecules to high concentration to low concentration
Passive Transportation
Movement of molec without using energy (ATP)
Osmosis
Diffusion of H20 across a semi permeable membrane
Open Circulatory
Hemolymph bathes internal organs
Closed Circulatory
Blood confined to vessels blood exchanges materials w/ ISF
A fish has how many chambers?
2: (1 atrium, 1 ventricle)
An amphibian has how many chambers?
3; (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
Mammals have how many chambers?
4; (2 atria, 4 ventricles)
The heart is located where?
Pericardial cavity
What is the heart made mostly of?
Cardiac muscle tissue
Atria have .....Walls
thin
Valves are located where?
In the atrium and ventricle
What is the purpose of the valves?
Keep blood from flowing back into atria
Name 2 Valves
Tricuspid and Bicuspid
Semi lunar valve
Located at exits of the heart (bottom of each ventricle)
Arteries
carry blood AWAY from heart and organs
Oxygen rich
Arteries
Veins
Return blood to heart
Deoxygenated blood
Veins (except pulmonary)
Capillaries
Microscopic vessels with very thin walls
Capillary wall
single layer of flattened cells
Where do substance transfers occur?
Between capillaries and interstitial fluid
What passes through the capillary walls?
Sugar, H20, salts, oxygen, and urea
Water will ......
Osmosis
Salts, sugars, and urea will...
diffuse
Urea is made of ....
Ammonia
Cardiac muscles contract
systole
Cardiac muscles relax
diastole
Senatorial mode
Maintains hearts pumping rhythm by setting the rate at which all cardiac muscles contract
Hemoglobin
an iron containing protein that carries oxygen
Blood
plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets
Plasma
made mostly of H20, makes up 55% blood volume
What contains antibodies, fibrinogens?
Plasma
Fibrinogen
proteins that act as clotting factors
Fibrinogen is
...
Hemophilia
an inherited disorder characterized by excessive bleeding from minor cuts and bruises
RBC
Erythrocytes
RBC
has 25 trillion, hemoglobin, and transport oxygen
WBC
Leucocytes
WBC
fight infections have 5 major types; spend time patrolling through the ISF and lymphatic system
WBC 5 major types
Monocytes, basophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils
Platelets
fragment of leftover RBC, assist in blood clotting
Cardiovascular disease
disease of heart and blood vessels
Myocardial infarction
heart attack; cell death in cardiac muscles result of blockage in coronary artery
Stroke
Cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular accident; Death of a nervous tissue in the brain resulting from blockage of arteries in the head
Trace a drop of blood
.
Respiratory system
Gets oxygen for body, Gets rid of CO2,
Requirements of all gas exchange mechanisms
moist membranes, High surface area to volume ratio
Respiration in Non-mammals
exchange gasses by diffusion across general body surface
Trachaea
used by insects, air tubes that branch throughout the nsect body
Filter the air that travels through the nose
cilia, mucus, sinuses