Circulation and Gas Exchange
Why is the circulatory system necessary?
Transportation; transports blood throughout body
Movement of molecules to high concentration to low concentration
Movement of molec without using energy (ATP)
Diffusion of H20 across a semi permeable membrane
Hemolymph bathes internal organs
Blood confined to vessels blood exchanges materials w/ ISF
A fish has how many chambers?
2: (1 atrium, 1 ventricle)
An amphibian has how many chambers?
3; (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
Mammals have how many chambers?
4; (2 atria, 4 ventricles)
The heart is located where?
What is the heart made mostly of?
Cardiac muscle tissue
Atria have .....Walls
Valves are located where?
In the atrium and ventricle
What is the purpose of the valves?
Keep blood from flowing back into atria
Name 2 Valves
Tricuspid and Bicuspid
Semi lunar valve
Located at exits of the heart (bottom of each ventricle)
carry blood AWAY from heart and organs
Return blood to heart
Veins (except pulmonary)
Microscopic vessels with very thin walls
single layer of flattened cells
Where do substance transfers occur?
Between capillaries and interstitial fluid
What passes through the capillary walls?
Sugar, H20, salts, oxygen, and urea
Water will ......
Salts, sugars, and urea will...
Urea is made of ....
Cardiac muscles contract
Cardiac muscles relax
Maintains hearts pumping rhythm by setting the rate at which all cardiac muscles contract
an iron containing protein that carries oxygen
plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets
made mostly of H20, makes up 55% blood volume
What contains antibodies, fibrinogens?
proteins that act as clotting factors
an inherited disorder characterized by excessive bleeding from minor cuts and bruises
has 25 trillion, hemoglobin, and transport oxygen
fight infections have 5 major types; spend time patrolling through the ISF and lymphatic system
WBC 5 major types
Monocytes, basophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils
fragment of leftover RBC, assist in blood clotting
disease of heart and blood vessels
heart attack; cell death in cardiac muscles result of blockage in coronary artery
Cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular accident; Death of a nervous tissue in the brain resulting from blockage of arteries in the head
Trace a drop of blood
Gets oxygen for body, Gets rid of CO2,
Requirements of all gas exchange mechanisms
moist membranes, High surface area to volume ratio
Respiration in Non-mammals
exchange gasses by diffusion across general body surface
used by insects, air tubes that branch throughout the nsect body
Filter the air that travels through the nose
cilia, mucus, sinuses