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Why is the circulatory system necessary?

Transportation; transports blood throughout body


Movement of molecules to high concentration to low concentration

Passive Transportation

Movement of molec without using energy (ATP)


Diffusion of H20 across a semi permeable membrane

Open Circulatory

Hemolymph bathes internal organs

Closed Circulatory

Blood confined to vessels blood exchanges materials w/ ISF

A fish has how many chambers?

2: (1 atrium, 1 ventricle)

An amphibian has how many chambers?

3; (2 atria, 1 ventricle)

Mammals have how many chambers?

4; (2 atria, 4 ventricles)

The heart is located where?

Pericardial cavity

What is the heart made mostly of?

Cardiac muscle tissue

Atria have .....Walls


Valves are located where?

In the atrium and ventricle

What is the purpose of the valves?

Keep blood from flowing back into atria

Name 2 Valves

Tricuspid and Bicuspid

Semi lunar valve

Located at exits of the heart (bottom of each ventricle)


carry blood AWAY from heart and organs

Oxygen rich



Return blood to heart

Deoxygenated blood

Veins (except pulmonary)


Microscopic vessels with very thin walls

Capillary wall

single layer of flattened cells

Where do substance transfers occur?

Between capillaries and interstitial fluid

What passes through the capillary walls?

Sugar, H20, salts, oxygen, and urea

Water will ......


Salts, sugars, and urea will...


Urea is made of ....


Cardiac muscles contract


Cardiac muscles relax


Senatorial mode

Maintains hearts pumping rhythm by setting the rate at which all cardiac muscles contract


an iron containing protein that carries oxygen


plasma, RBC, WBC, and platelets


made mostly of H20, makes up 55% blood volume

What contains antibodies, fibrinogens?



proteins that act as clotting factors

Fibrinogen is



an inherited disorder characterized by excessive bleeding from minor cuts and bruises




has 25 trillion, hemoglobin, and transport oxygen




fight infections have 5 major types; spend time patrolling through the ISF and lymphatic system

WBC 5 major types

Monocytes, basophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils


fragment of leftover RBC, assist in blood clotting

Cardiovascular disease

disease of heart and blood vessels

Myocardial infarction

heart attack; cell death in cardiac muscles result of blockage in coronary artery


Cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular accident; Death of a nervous tissue in the brain resulting from blockage of arteries in the head

Trace a drop of blood


Respiratory system

Gets oxygen for body, Gets rid of CO2,

Requirements of all gas exchange mechanisms

moist membranes, High surface area to volume ratio

Respiration in Non-mammals

exchange gasses by diffusion across general body surface


used by insects, air tubes that branch throughout the nsect body

Filter the air that travels through the nose

cilia, mucus, sinuses

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