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AP Government Chapter 13
Terms in this set (36)
a president's authority to reject a bill passed by Congress; may only be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house
A special veto exercised by the chief executive after a legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specified period of time. If Congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of Congress.
Sources of presidential strength
from their Party, from Popular mobilization, from their Administration
When the president's party controls Congress and they share policy goals, the president can have tremendous influence IF the party is cohesive.
If President's party is the minority in Congress, may stifle ability of President to implement desired policy changes
"Going public." The use of mass media to appeal directly to the electorate for support on a particular issue (ex. FDR's "fireside chats").
Nineteenth century presidents were expected to be unifiers and not speak out in public about policies.
Andrew Johnson & Reconstruction program: "inflammatory"
Now, presidents must carefully cultivate their public image.
20th Century trend
Theodore Roosevelt: White House as "bully pulpit"
an agency located within a department of the executive branch of government; heads and appointed members serve at the pleasure of the president
powers directly stated in the constitution
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval.
Agreements with other countries that do not need senate approval
Formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the federal bureaucracy.
statement issued by the president after he signs a bill wherein he provides his interpretation of the law/modifies the intent of Congress
Instructions on how to execute law
Ex: Truman & 1946 Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act
Samuel Alito & Edwin Meese (Reagan's attorney general)
Framers & the Presidency
Presidential can ensure that anyone accused of a crime will not be prosecuted under federal law.
A meeting held every four years by each of the major political parties to nominate a presidential candidate.
Presidency & the Constitution
The Cabinet: heads of the major executive branch departments
Origin: early presidents had a secretary who would store the president's papers in a cabinet.
Comparison to Great Britain
Clinton: Cabinet diverse enough "to look like America" = good or bad?
Ceremonial in nature
Defense, State, and Treasury vs. HUD, Energy, Agriculture
the president's inherent power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress
US v. Nixon
The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial
National Security Council
An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers.
Presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of president, vice president, secretary of state, secretary of defense, and other invited officials
It is managed by the president's national security assistant.
Importance of NSC depends on President's own preferences
Joint Chief of Staffs
The highest ranking military officers of each of the armed forces.
Growth of Presidential Power
The people look to the president for leadership in these areas; transportation, civil rights, communication, environment, health, welfare, and education. The president's face is everywhere.
An executive officer ranking immediately below a president. If the president is unable to serve, he/she takes his/her place. President of Senate & casts tie-breaker vote in Senate.
First spouse:first lady. A public woman, political celebrity, as political activist and as political interloper
This role also varies from administration to administration.
Traditionally performed primarily ceremonial roles
Now, often take a more active roll; defining the position can be difficult
Large staff of their own, with policy advisers, schedulers, and public relations staffers.
Michelle Obama vs. Hillary Clinton
Office of Management and Budget
Executive office responsible for helping the President write the federal budget and monitoring federal spending.
informal group of advisers to whom President turns for counsel and guidance
Members of official Cabinet may or may not be part of this
ex. A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
congress can do this with a 2/3rds vote by the members present in each chamber. The result of this is that the bill becomes a law against the wishes of the president
A legislative branch check on the executive branch
Nomination of party candidates by registered party members rather than bosses
the tx election code requires major parties to utilize which process of selecting nominees for the general election
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party.
Executive Office of the President
Agencies that perform staff services for the president but are not part of the White House
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
State of the Union
The Constitution grants the president certain enumerated powers. Describe two of these formal powers that enabled the president to exert influence over domestic policy.
Advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president.
Congress vs. President
budget and impoundment control act-attempt by congress to get power back from president; president can use media to influence congress; assign people in executive office to lobby legislators, take advantage of majority control in congress, take advantage of high public polls
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
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