BJU Life Science 4th ed. Chapter 13 study guide
Terms in this set (46)
What are the three main characteristics of vertebrates?
Vertebra, skull and it's alive
What is stronger bone or cartilage?
Explain differences between endotherms and ectotherms? Give example.
Endotherms regulate their body temperature internally. Examples are mammal and birds. Ectotherms temperature changes with their environments. Examples are fish, amphibians, reptiles.
What four things does the circulatory system do for us?
Brings oxygen, nutrients, hormones to the body through blood. It carries away carbon dioxide and waste through blood.
Oxygenated blood is?
Bright red and carries oxygen.
Deoxygenated blood is?
Dark red and carries carbon dioxide and some oxygen that wasn't used.
Explain how blood travels to and through the heart?
Deoxygenated blood goes through veins of the body and enters the heart chambers , it goes through valves and then goes through arteries to the lungs. Oxygenated blood returns through veins from the lungs and enters other chambers and valves and out to arteries to the body.
How many heart chambers do fish have?
How many heart chambers do reptiles and amphibians have?
How many heart chambers do mammals and birds have?
Explain how fish and young amphibians use their gills to breathe?
Blood circulates through the gills where they take oxygen that is dissolved in the water and let out carbon dioxide.
Lungs are filled with air chambers and?
Capillaries where deoxygenated blood becomes oxygenated.
Mammals and humans use these to breathe?
The central nervous system consists of these two things?
brain and spinal cord
What does the CNS control?
heart, breathing, body functions, sensors of the head like hearing, sight and smell.
What system acts like as a link between the environment and the central nervous system?
sensory organs like eyes, nose and eardrums.
What are the cranial nerves and what do they do?
Carry impulses from sensory organs to the brain.
What are the spinal nerves and what do they do?
Transmit impulse from sensory receptors of skin and organs to spinal cord. They also relay impulses from the spinal cord to various muscles and organs.
What is a sensory organ? Give an example.
A major collection of sensory receptors and various supporting structure? Eyes, nose, eardrums.
Explain digestion system using all seven terms (esophagus, stomach muscles, small intestine, gallbladder, liver, pancreas. large intestine)?
Food from the mouth goes down the esophagus into the stomach where stomach muscles mix food with digestive enzymes and made into smaller pieces. It then goes to the small intestine where the gall bladder releases bile to break down fats and the pancreas releases other enzymes to break down to break down starches proteins and other fats. The nutrients are absorbed to the body and the liver replaces the bile in the gallbladder. The food that can't be broken down is sent to the large intestine where water is absorbed to the body and the undigested food leaves the body through the anus.
How does bile aid in digestion? Where is it produced?
Bile is produced in the liver and breaks down fats in digestions.
How does the pancreas aid in digestion?
release enzymes that help break down starches protein and fats to be used by the body.
Name the three types of eaters (forms of nutrition)?
Herbivores - animals that eats plants like horses and cows.
Carnivores - animals that eat other animal like sharks, frogs, snakes.
Omnivores - animals that eat plants and others animals like bears, pigs and most humans.
The excretory system consists of this organ that filters wastes from the blood?
Waste from the excretory system is stored here before leaving the body?
The lateral line on a fish detects these two senses?
vibrations and pressure
Fish reproduce by? explain this process.
spawning. Female fish release millions of eggs which are then fertilized by the male.
What organ helps some fish maintain their position at a constant depth?
Jawless fish lack these three things?
Jaws, scales and paired fins.
Give an example of a cartilaginous fish?
Shark, skates, rays.
Give an example of a bony fish?
catfish, bass, goldfish guppies, trout, flounder
What group of fish contains the most fish?
Amphibians live here when young?
Amphibians live here when adults?
During an amphibians metamorphosis gills to change to these and two chambered hearts now have this many chambers?
What three structures might amphibians use for respiration?
Gills, lungs and skin.
Explain what it means if an amphibian's tail resorbs during metamorphosis?
The tail gradually dissolves and the materials are used elsewhere in the body.
Frogs undergo this in the winter?
Frogs undergo this in the summer?
What are two defenses that salamanders use?
Secrete distasteful or numbing secretions and sticky mucus.
The process of a snake shedding its skin is called?
How do reptiles reproduce?
They lay eggs which are fertilized internally in the female's body.
How can you distinguish between an alligator and crocodile?
Alligators have broad, rounded snouts and crocodiles have narrow, pointed snouts.
Why is a turtle's shell so important?
Serves as its defense.
What are the three types of turtles and where do they live?
Sea turtles - live in the ocean
Tortoises - live on land
Terrapins - live in or near fresh or brackish water